Sunday, May 24, 2020

Moon Landing Conspiracy And Its Effects On The World Essay

Moon Landing Conspiracy The United States and Mankind have gone on to do many amazing feats that were once though impossible. However, nothing comes to be quite as amazing as the Apollo 11 mission that landed the first men on the surface of the moon. At the time this act caused widespread celebration, and cheer. Over the years some people started to doubt the legitimacy of what occurred on that day back in 1969. These people came on to form the basis of the moon landing conspiracy theory. A theory that states that the United States never landed on the moon and the United States faked the whole thing in order to say they won the space race against the Soviet Union and increase moral during the time of the Cold war. Some of the core arguments that form the Moon landing Hoax conspiracy are that the mission would have been too dangerous with the technology we had at the time. They disregard any footage from the event, believing that NASA and the US government created a fake set in an undisclosed location and us ed special effects to make the footage seem more believable. All of the claims made by these hoax believers can be refuted with science and common sense, and that is what this paper sets out to do. The Apollo missions were huge efforts that required thousands of scientists, workers and contractors to come together. So how is it that thousands of people can come together to create what was a fake mission without one person coming forward and leaking the fact that all ofShow MoreRelatedMoon Landing Conspiracy807 Words   |  4 PagesScientific Facts for Moon Landing Conspiracy Theorists: An Essay on the Apollo 11 Conspiracies Tatiana Odishoo Ms. Betances, English 1 Pre-IB Global Issue Research Paper June1, 2011 Odishoo, Tatiana Ms. Betances/ English 1 Pre-IB Per.5 Global Issue Draft 20 May 2011 Scientific Facts for Moon Landing Conspiracy Theorists People around the globe are familiar with the triumphant words, â€Å"One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.† However, nearly 20% (Russo) believe they wereRead MoreMoon Landing Exploratory Essay1029 Words   |  5 PagesMoon Landing 1969 â€Å"Ignition sequence starts, three, two, one, all engine running, zero, lift off.† On July 16th 9:32 a.m., Apollo 11 was successfully launched as millions watched. Indeed, the lunar mission of the Apollo 11 was a new break through in the field of space exploration. Soon after, however, many controversies were raised on the authenticity of this event. Many critics of the lunar landing believe that this event was a hoax perpetuated to deceive the society. The debate, whether the moonRead MoreMoon Landing : Conspiracy Or Reality?1461 Words   |  6 PagesMoon Landing: Conspiracy or Reality? It wasn t until I really sat down and thought about it that I realized the moon landing was questionable. As a kid I always thought it would be amazing to be an astronaut so the thought that maybe there is no real astronauts at all had me concerned. On July 20th 1969, the Apollo 11 with astronaut Neil Armstrong and his crew, guided by thousands of NASA technicians, supposedly landed in the surface of the moon. This landing at its time was considered the mostRead MoreConspiracy Theories: Moon Landing Essay1292 Words   |  6 PagesConspiracy theories have been around since the beginning of time. When NASA sent the first landed on the moon, there are people who believed that NASA faked the moon landings. Men, such as Bill Kaysing, the Flat Earth Society, and Davie Groves, and Bart Sibrel, have written books, delivered lectures, and made videos about why they believed NASA faked the moon landings. Based on their observations which include no stars in their pictures, NASAs drive to bea t the Russians to the moon, and a way toRead MoreThe Discovery Of The Amazing Apollo 11 Feat1528 Words   |  7 PagesHistory or Hoax? â€Å"That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.† Or was it? For decades skeptics have been conjuring up hundreds of theories to try and prove that on July 20, 1969, man did in fact, not step foot on the surface of the moon. Could what is perhaps the United States’ greatest individual achievement be nothing but some Hollywood antics? Disbelievers of the amazing Apollo 11 feat have been voicing their opinion on the topic ever since the original photos and videos were publiclyRead MoreMoon Landing Hoax Essay2276 Words   |  10 PagesMoon Landing Hoax John F. Kennedy once said, No nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space...We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard†. The main motive for this quote was to ensure that the United States wanted to beat out the Soviets in the space race. Ever since the Soviets tried to advance on the moon, the United States wanted to be the first successfulRead MoreApollo Moon Landings..Are They Real or a Myth?2099 Words   |  9 Pagesrace to the moon had begun. In 1963, President John F. Kennedy made a speech saying We will go to the moon in this decade amongst other things, not because they are easy but because they are hard. After he was assassinated, NASA decided to pursue his plan and in 1967 the Apollo program began. In 1969, NASA landed Apollo 11 on the moon and the race was finally over. This was a major leap not only for Americans, but also for mankind. Videos and photos that were taken on the moon were shown toRead MoreThe Moon, Has Anyone Yet For Arrive? Essay1585 Words   |  7 PagesThe Moon, Has Anyone Yet to Arrive? On the twentieth of June in the year of 1969, the world watched as Neil Armstrong, Edwin â€Å"Buzz† Aldrin, and Michael Collins completely obliterated the original ideas of what the human race thought was possible and impossible during their expedition to the moon. Apollo 11 could have undoubtedly been the most monumental and extraordinary operation to have happened in history. However, with the abundant amount of unanswered questions and failure to provide furtherRead MoreThe World Of The Space Race1887 Words   |  8 PagesOn October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first satellite into space called, â€Å"Sputnik†. It was the start of one of the biggest races in the world called â€Å"The Space Race†. But it isn’t the start of the race that is questionable but the very end. On July 19, 1969 the United States supposedly landed 3 men on the moon. More than a billion people around the globe watched this event occur on their television sets as Neil Armstrong said â€Å"That’s one small step for man, and one giant leap for mankindRead MoreScript For Us Soviet Space Race Presentation1551 Words   |  7 Pageswhy Americans have never lost and will never lose a war. Because the very thought of losing is hateful to Americans† – This quote from the 1970 biopic of General George Patton illustrates the worldview of Americans during and immediately following World War II. When the new battle of the Cold War began, the Soviet Union became our new enemy, to be absolutely and utterly defeated by any means necessary. Not only was each advancement by the U.S. a victory, but each one by the USSR was implicitly a failure

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

A Simple Guide to Global Climate Change

A discussion of global climate change, also called global warming, can get very complicated very quickly. Fortunately, it can be explained rather simply. Here are the basics you need to know about climate change: Warmer Land and Sea The climate has warmed and cooled many times during Earth’s geological history, over millions of years. However, the global increase in mean temperature we have observed in the last decades has been both unusually rapid and quite large. It translates to warmer  air  temperatures and warmer sea water almost everywhere on Earth. Less Ice, LessSnow This increase in temperatures has led to increased melting of most of the world’s glaciers. In addition, the thick  Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets are losing volume, and sea ice covers an increasingly small portion of the Arctic while also getting thinner. The winter snow cover in most areas of the U.S. is thinner and does not last as long over the winter. Sea levels are rising, both because of the melting ice, and because warmer water expands and takes up more space. Less Predictable Weather While the word climate refers to long-term statistics on many aspects of temperature and precipitation, weather is a more immediate phenomenon, and is what we feel outside everyday. Global climate change is transforming our experience of weather events in different ways depending on where we live. Common changes include more frequent heavy rain events, regular winter thaws, or persistent droughts. All About the Greenhouse Effect Human activities release in the atmosphere many gases that create a greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases hold back the sun’s energy that had been reflected by Earth’s surface. This heat is then redirected towards the ground, increasing temperatures. Most of the observed warming can be attributed to these gases. How Are Greenhouse Gas Produced? The most important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide and methane. They are released when we extract, process, and burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas for electricity, manufacturing, and transportation. These gases are also produced during industrial activities, when we clear land for housing and farming, and during some agricultural activities. Are Sun Cycles to Blame? The Earth’s surface temperature rises and falls with slight changes during natural sun cycles. However, these solar cycles and the changes they produce are well understood and much less significant than those driven by greenhouse gases. Global Warming Consequences The consequences of global warming include more frequent coastal flooding, heat waves, extreme precipitation events, food insecurity, and urban vulnerability. The global warming consequences are being felt (and will be felt) differently in different parts of the world. Global climate change often affects more those who do not have the economic means to develop ways to adapt to the changes. Of course, climate change affect not only humans but the rest of the living world as well.   Global warming has few positive consequences. Gains in agricultural production, often cited as positive, are easily offset by increases in pest problems (including invasive species), droughts, and severe weather events. We can respond by mitigating global warming, which is to reduce it by curbing greenhouse gas emissions. We can also capture carbon dioxide, the most abundant greenhouse gas, out of the atmosphere and store it safely on earth. We can, in addition, adapt by investing in infrastructure, transportation, and agriculture in order to continue living with the inevitable changes brought by global warming.    What Can You Do? Most importantly, reduce your greenhouse gas emissions, whether you contribute as an individual or as a business owner.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Public Service Policy and Strategy Business Essay Free Essays

string(74) " is a balance between the two types of forces, no change will take place\." Abstract Organisations change in various ways which means that they become different. This could happen as a result of becoming a larger entity or by changing from a private to a public company. Change could also take place as a result of becoming â€Å"more customer or marketing focused as opposed to production orientated† (The Times, 2012, p. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Service Policy and Strategy Business Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1) or by changing the scope of its business activities. These are just some of the changes that may occur within an organisation and could lead to either a positive or negative outcome. Whilst change is inevitable, it is important that Public Service Organisations’ (PSO) are able to deal with any challenges they face. This is because, PSO’s are in a position of trust as they provide services to the public and so are owned and controlled by the government. Hence, it is therefore vital that PSO’s fully understand the public sector and are prepared for new changes. This could be achieved by ensuring that there is a need for change and thereby planning for it; by building internal support systems and by overcoming resistance by making sure that there is top management support and commitment (Sergio and Rainey, 2006: 168). Provided that these factors are taken into consideration, a trusting environment will be created and PSO’s will be equipped for any transit ions that take place. The main changes that are likely to take place within a PSO include: services design; structural alterations, management or administration of PSO’s, and changes to the skills that are necessary to manage PSO’s. Understanding the process of transformation and change in PSO’s are thereby key elements of a manager’s role. There are two kinds of strategies for managing change, these are planned and emergency, yet how these strategies are utilised will depend on the type of change taking place. Introduction The current scenario of the British Red Cross (BRC) will be explained in this report followed by an assessment as to whether change within the BRC is in fact needed. A new strategic direction will also be introduced which will contain the BRC’s main objective which is to; â€Å"help people in crisis in the UK and all over the world† (BRC, 2012: 1). This will be done by firstly introducing the BRC and putting forward a change situation. The force field analysis evaluating drivers and resisters of the change will then be explained followed by an overview of Mintzberg’s concept of an emergent strategy. Once this has been done, an action plan which demonstrates how the change shall happen will then be constructed, followed by a conclusion and overall summary of the reports main findings. Main Body Section 1: Introduction to the BRC and change proposal 1.1 Organization background (BRC): The British Red Cross (BRC) is a UK society, which is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement that aims to provide aid to those in crisis. The BRC helps those within and outside of the UK and operates a non-discriminatory policy. The main objective of the BRC is to provide assistance to people in crisis by conforming to the seven fundamental principles which are: Humanity Impartiality Neutrality Voluntary Service Unity Universality Independence In addition to these principles, the BRC strives to be compassionate, inclusive, dynamic and courageous (BRC, 2011c: 1) and is recognised as one of the main voluntary aid societies within the UK. The BRC undertakes a number of different activities annually so that individuals can be provided with the help that they need. In 2011 the BRC launched seven emergency appeals to help people around the world recover from famine, flooding, earthquakes and conflict, raising 21.6 million; helped 75,000 people in Haiti recover their livelihoods; responded to 4,200 emergency call outs in the UK; loaned out 75,000 wheelchairs; and helped 35,000 refugees and asylum seekers adapt to life in the UK (BRC, 2011b: 1-27). As the BRC is a charity, nonetheless, much of the funding comes from voluntary public contributions and whilst personal contributions are highly important so are corporate contributions since the BRC would not be able to function effectively without such aid. 1.2 Analyzing the change situation: After reviewing both the internal and external environment of the BRC, it is revealed that the BRC needs to raise greater awareness about overseas emergency aid. This is because, after undertaking various research activities, it was found that â€Å"almost three in four Britons feel that they are not well informed about overseas emergency aid issues† (BRC, 2011c: 1). In accordance with this, it is vital that changes to the ways in which the BRC operates are made so that a greater awareness of overseas aid can be achieved. Because the BRC operates on public funding, it is necessary for all individuals to be made fully aware of the different areas of the aid system. This could be attained through the formation of an executive organisation dealing primarily with aid awareness. The public would thus be provided with greater confidence when donating to the BRC as they would be fully aware of how their aid is being utilized. Consequently, the main objective of this new strategic dir ection is to prevent corruption and organisational incompetence whilst promoting an awareness of emergency aid. In realising this direction, the BRC’s current business strategy would need to be altered in order to approach the public in developed countries and provide them with an insight into the ways underdeveloped countries are being supported. This would certainly encourage further aid and would evidently lead to the growth of the BRC. Section 2 Force field analysis evaluating drivers and resisters of the change There are a number of different factors which drive change within any organisation, yet Lewin (1951) identified four different forces in his force field analysis. These are; forces for change; forces resisting change; driving forces; and restraining forces These forces are used in change management and help to understand most change processes in any organisation. If there is a balance between the two types of forces, no change will take place. You read "Public Service Policy and Strategy Business Essay" in category "Essay examples" However, if the driving force exceeds the restraining force then changes will be made. Accordingly, the total drivers and resisters first need to be identified. Once this has been done, an appropriate score from 0-9 then needs to be assigned to the force. Based on the total score of all the drivers and resisters, it is determined whether implementation of change would be successful or not. Below is the representation of influencer drivers and resisters of the proposed change situation for the BRC. Forces FOR change Forces AGAINST change Need to raise awareness about overseas emergency aid 8 Complex issues may be raised 5 Desire to increase voluntary donations 7 BRC’s current strategies are workable 6 Need to understand how aid is being utilised 8 Costs are reduced 5 Possibility of increased public donations 7 Rational resistance of change 3 30TOTAL19 2.1 Drivers of change: Need to raise awareness about overseas emergency aid – This force is imperative in preventing corrupt practices from taking place, yet the only way the public can be assured that this is being achieved is through improved public understanding as to how the BRC’s aid is being spent. At present, the public are unsure as to why developing countries remain underdeveloped when a significant amount of aid is being transferred to these countries each year. However, as noted by Akande (2001, p. 27); â€Å"the sums concerned, though large, can do little to offset the far greater imbalances in the world economic order where raw commodities exported from developing countries have lost more than 50% of their trade value in the last 15 years.† Furthermore, whilst individuals and organisations provide a lot of aid to the BRC, a substantial amount of this is paid to the bank in interest. Furthermore, debt servicing payments are also paid to the World Bank, which means that dev eloping countries are left with very little to establish their own economies. This appears somewhat absurd and it is unsurprising why there is a great reluctance to provide aid to underdeveloped countries because of this. Consequently, provided that the BRC can demonstrate exactly how their particular aid is utilised, it is likely that further investments will be made. This is because, as stressed by Aid Info (2008; p. 1); â€Å"Organisations and governments are most effective when they can be held accountable to those they serve, in this instance, communities receiving aid.† Therefore, unless aid transparency is ascertained, the growth of the BRC will be affected. This force scores 8 as it is given high consideration for effective aid utilization within the UK. Desire to increase voluntary donations – Because the BRC operates on voluntary donations, it is vital that these can be increased which is likely to be attained through aid transparency. This force scores 7 from this too has a significant impact upon the drive for change. Need to understand how aid is being utilised – If the public understand how their donations will be utilised it is likely that they will donate a lot more. As such, better awareness and utilisation is required. This force impacts deeply and thus scores 8 to demonstrate the significance of aid utilization maximization. Possibilities of increased public donations – It is likely that there would be an increased level of public donations if the public were fully aware of how their contributions were being spent. Essentially, it is important that this scores 7 since the value of the chain is clearly determined by this. 2.2 Resisters of change: Complex issues may be raised – Greater accountability may cause many problems for the BRC and the internal environment may be significantly affected as a result. This force scores 5 to illustrate its impact. BRC’s current strategies are workable – Because of the success in which the BRC has had so far, it could be said that changes to aid awareness would be detrimental and that aid data would still only be partially available. This change scores 6 in order to reflect the concern surrounding this issue. Costs are reduced: Because of the costs that would be incurred from generating awareness, it is likely that the amount of net aid will be reduced which would have a damaging effect to the value of the BRC. It therefore scores 5. Rational resistance of change: In justifying the need for this change, a determination as to whether aid awareness is really necessary needs to be made. Nevertheless, because rational resistance is easily overcome it scores a low 3 as the impact of this is minimal. After quantifying the numbers of drivers and resisters with their degree of influence it is evident that there will be more drivers than resisters of this particular change. Accordingly, the total score of drivers is 30, whilst the total score of resistors is 19. As a result, it is manifest that the change to be made will be more likely to succeed since aid awareness is likely to have a positive impact on the performance of the BRC. Section 3: Mintzberg’s concept of an emergent strategy for proposed change in the BRC 3.1 Understanding Mintzberg’s emergent strategy: An emergent strategy is one that emerges over time as unexpected changes in the environment collide with intentions. Essentially, this means that the intended strategy of an organisation eventually changes in accordance with what actually works in practice (Moore, 2011, p. 1). Thus, according to Mintzberg (1985, p. 257); â€Å"strategies are largely emergent within organisations and not simply predictable outcomes of formal hierarchical plans.† Consequently, it is thus believed by Mintzberg (1994) that the management of any organisation should therefore adopt a more flexible approach when it comes to strategic planning since the original objectives will undoubtedly be subject to change. In accordance with this emergent strategy, it is thereby important that the strategic plan for BRC includes ways to reduce the resisters of change. This will be done in accordance with the BRC’s best practice. 3.2 Constructing emergent strategy to implement change in the BRC: An emergent strategy can be created by following these steps; (Scott, 2006, pp. 6-7). Step 1 – Identify and map out any assumptions and risks of the BRC’s strategy; Step 2 – Identify and prioritise those assumptions and risks in order to learn more about them so that any risks can be dealt with accordingly; Step 3 – Design and execute knowledge building exercises in order to build smart experiments and risk mitigation strategies; Step 4 – Absorb and redirect based on the results of the experiments. By putting these steps into practice, BRC will be able to adjust to any new ideas and deal with any challenges they may face according. This will ultimately increase the chances of this new change succeeding. Step 1 – Identify and map out any assumptions and risks in of the BRC’s strategy Because change within any organisation lead creates a certain degree of uncertainty, it is important to carefully review all parts of an emergent strategy, whether these are positive or negative. Since the BRC aims to provide help and assistance to those in crisis around the world, it is evident that the change relating to aid transparency will not have much of a damaging effect. However, there will be some concern relating to the case flow of the BRC as the costs incurred may have a negative impact on this. Nevertheless, if this change leads to an increase in donations, the dent in the cash flow can be overcome. Consequently, the change in this strategy is proposed to change the views on donating and provide those willing to donate with a deeper understanding of how aid is being utilised. This will prevent corrupt practices from being employed and the utilization of aid will be maximised. Step 2 – Identify and prioritise those assumptions and risks in order to learn more about them so that any risks can be dealt with accordingly Whilst the internal and external environment of the BRC will be affected by this change, it is important to prioritise the assumptions and risks by considering the impact a wrong assumption would have on the BRC and determining how any risks can in fact be overcome. It also needs to be considered whether the assumptions are certain because even the slightest doubt can significantly affect the overall strategy of the BRC. Consideration of how further assumptions can be learnt also needs to be taken into account so that costs of running further experiments and the amount of time this will take can be established. Step 3 – Design and execute knowledge building exercises in order to build smart experiments and risk mitigation strategies All good emergent strategies need experiments and risk mitigation strategies so that any uncertainties in the approach taken can be identified and dealt with early on. Experiments can consist of; partial experiments, which test one part of a strategy, and holistic experiments, which test the whole of the strategy. Step 4 – Absorb and redirect based on the results of the experiments This stage of the emergent strategy process consists of a knowledge building exercise. The BRC and its management will thus be required to re-assess the approach being undertaken and consider whether any new information should lead the management to; double down, continue exploring, re-vector or shelve (Scott, 2008, p. 9). Consequently, in order to construct the emergent strategy for change in the BRC pre-strategic planning and implementation is required. Section 4: Precise Action plan Objectives Actions Responsibilities Resources Deadlines Risks Mile stones Human Financial objectiveActionsResposibilitiesResourcesmeasuresRisksdeadlineMilestone Develop the BRC’s own team of executivesAction 1: Implement a task-expertise-person model of team effectiveness Action 2: Organise the entire system of operation leadership and responsibilities Action 3: Construct Executive Strategy Action 4: Develop an effective HR management systemManagers and employeesInformation Services, computerisation, resource centre and networkingCalculate the costs and allocate responsibilitiesCostly and Time ConsumingMarch 2013Analyse the executive’s current skills, knowledge and competencies and develop a training plan for the team of executives through the completion of a gap analysis. Raise awareness about overseas aid in order to increase voluntary donationsAction 1: Consider how aid should be effectively distributed Action 2: Raise current awareness about aid Action 3:Operative executivesQuestionnaires, Perceptions Survey, Networking and Resource CentresAs aboveNegative impact of PEST factorsMay 2013Interact with the public in order to determine current awareness Collect and Analyse Experimental DataAction 1: Evaluate current awareness Action 2: Consider the effects increased awareness would have on the organisation Action 3: Record current activities of aid awarenessEmployeesAs aboveAs aboveConsider the effects transparency will have on the BRCAugust 2013Analyse the data collected and reach a conclusion based on the findings. Use statistical methods to decide whether the change is worthwhile Finalise Emergent StrategyAction 1: Design and Execute Knowledge Building Exercises Action 2: Pre Strategic Planning Action 3: Redirect activities based on the findings Managers, Executors and Leadership TeamAs AboveReviewing Data, Generating Initiatives, Prioritising Activities, Writing the overall planConsider how the resistors of change can be overcomeDecember 2013Adjust to the new ideas and deal with any challenges in an appropriate manner Implement the ChangeAction 1: Raise awareness of overseas aid Action 2: Ensure the BRC’s activities are transparent Action 3: Provide the public with an overview as to how the resources are being usedManagers, Executors and Leadership TeamComputer Systems, Internet, VolunteersImplement the PlanIf the outcomes are negative, re-direct the strategy and start againMarch 2014Review the emergent strategy and make changes where necessary Section 5: Concluding Remarks Many organisations are coming to the realisation that change is to be expected, which is why it is important that effective strategies are in place that will help to deal with such changes and ensure that only positive outcomes are produced. Whilst the introduction of significant changes can be confusing and frustrating leading to a decline in productivity, it is clear that such drawbacks can be overcome through the implementation of an effective emergent strategy. Accordingly, risks to productivity will thus be eradicated and the desired objectives of the change will be achieved. The BRC does not have an easy solution when it comes to making changes to the organisational structure of the business and instead ensures that any changes to be made are thoroughly thought out before they are implemented. Thus, in order for the BRC to reach its overall aim which is to help those in crisis, much emphasis is placed upon the need for transparency. The fundamental idea is to provide the public with a greater understanding of how the aid that is provided to the BRC is being utilised so that voluntary donations increase. In addition, it is likely that corrupt practices would be eradicated if the BRC were more transparent and although this would cost money; the advantages clearly outweigh the disadvantages. This report uses the force field analysis in order to identify the resistors and drivers of this proposed change and to consider whether the change should take place. Because the score for change is 30, whilst the score against change is 19, it is evident that the change will prove successful. Therefore, in order to achieve the desired outcome of the change, the emergent strategy of Mintzberg ought to be used. References Aid Info. (2008) Aid Transparency Movement, Better Information, Better Aid, [Online] Available: http://www.aidinfo.org/about-us/aid-transparency-movement [04 January 2013]. Akande, W. (2001) Ireland: A Nation in Transition, iUniverse. BRC. (2011a) Seeds of Change Launched at Red Cross Event, [Online] Available: http://www.redcross.org.uk/About-us/News/2011/October/Seeds-of-Change-campaign-launched-at-Red-Cross-event [22 December 2012]. BRC. (2011b) Trustees Report and Accounts, [Online] Available: http://www.scribd.com/doc/90332211/2011-Trustees-report-and-accounts [22 December 2012]. BRC. (2011c) Our Values, [Online] Available: http://www.redcross.org.uk/About-us/Who-we-are/Our-values [21 December 2012]. BRC. (2012) Donate Today, [Online] Available: http://www.redcross.org.uk/ [20 December 2012]. Moore, K. (2011) Porter or Mintzberg: Whose View of Strategy is the Most Relevant Today, Forbes, [Online] Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/karlmoore/2011/03/28/porter-or-mintzberg-whose-view-of-strategy-is-the-most-relevant-today/ [05 January 2013]. Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J. A. (1985) Of Strategies, Deliberate and Emergent, Wiley-Blackwell, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 6, no. 3. Mintzberg, H. (1994) The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconcieving Roles for Planning, Plans, Planners, Free Press: New York, Maxwell Macmillan. Scott, D A. (2006) Mastering the Emergent Strategy Process, Strategy and Innovation. Sergio, F. and Rainey, H. G. (2006) Managing Successful Organisational Change in the Public Sector, Public Administration Review, Volume 168, Issue 9. The Times. (2012) The Organisation and Change, Operations Theory, [Online] Available: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/business-theory/operations/the-organisation-and-change.html#axzz2H6FILJP6 [04 January 2013]. How to cite Public Service Policy and Strategy Business Essay, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Classical Neo Theories Of Economic Growth -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Classical Neo Theories Of Economic Growth? Answer: Introducation Economic growth refers to the increase in the capability of an economy in the production of goods and services from one time period to another. It is usually measured in the percentage rate of increase in the real or nominal terms of gross domestic product (GDP) (Kuznets 2016). There are two major branches of economics that explain the economic growth in two different angles. One of them is the Classical theory of economic growth. The pioneers of economics, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas R. Malthus and J. S. Mill provided the essence of economic growth, known as, classical theory of economic growth. As stated by North (2016), the theme of classical theory is that the growth of an economy depends on capital accumulation, increasing returns to scale and specialization. Adam Smith first proposed the idea of economic growth in his 1776 book, Wealth of Nations. He argued that there are several elements in the economy that can lead to increased growth. Those elements are: Markets playing important role in the determination of demand and supply Productivity of labor and its influence on per capita income Significant role of trade in enabling more specialization Increasing returns to scale, resulting in more specialization in the modern world (Rosen and Gayer 2014). The classical model was developed by Malthus and Ricardo. In this model, they assumed that the change in technology is constant and expansion in the inputs results in diminishing returns to scale. Malthus highlighted in his theory that, the worlds population would grow faster than the capacity to feed itself because he did not consider any technological improvement (Chakravarty 2017). Rosen and Gayer (2014) stated that according to the classical economists, one of the major features of a growing economy is the higher level of capital accumulation. This allows increase in the total output for the community by increasing the productivity of land and labor and increasing the allocation of available productive resources. Along with that, the total amount of profit is dependent on two factors, namely, total product of labor and wage level (Scully 2014). Thus, in turn it also depends on the marginal productivity of labor. The productivity of labor in turn depends on the capital stock and available techniques. The market wages could rise above the subsistence level in the short run and this would bring an increase in the population. However, in the long run, as the population growth increases, the wage reaches the subsistence level and then the growth in the population would stop. Hartwell (2017) pointed out that the surplus that is earned by the capitalists will be rein vested again in the production and the entire process will come to a stop when the diminishing returns set in the production process. Classical theory of economic growth In the above diagram, the line OW shows the subsistence level of wage, and TP1 is the total product curve. When the population level is at OM, the level of total product is OP. The per capita wage is MS, and surplus or profit is ST. At this stage, the capital formation starts and that results in increase in the demand for labor, leading to a rise in the wages, as the economy moves from T to B. With this movement, the level of working force increases and it shifts to the right, from OM to ON. Increase in population results in more amount of surplus and it is reinvested in the economy. The process will continue till it reaches the point E. With every step in the movement, the amount of surplus capital gets decreased. At E, there will be no capital or surplus, and output and wage become equal. It is a stationary situation where there will be no economic growth, and the population would remain stagnant at OV. TP2 represents the total product curve when there is another factor, that is te chnological factor and that increases the level of total product of the economy. According to the classical economists, even if there is technological factor, the economy would still reach the stagnation when there is no capital surplus (Keynes 2016). Neo-Classical Theory of Economic Growth The neo-classical theory of economic growth is established on the basis of the understanding that, growth in the output of an economy depends on the capital formation, labor and technology. According to this theory, an economy can achieve the state of equilibrium by changing the amount of labor and capital in the production function. In this theory, the role of technology on the production has been accepted. The neo-classical growth theory is a combination of the works of Solow, Meade, Tobin, Phelps, Johnson and Swan. They formed their theories on the basis of the neo-classical economists, Marshall, Wicksell and Pigou. The neo-classical theory is based on the assumptions that, The commodity and the factor markets have perfect competition, Factor payments are equal to the marginal revenue, The ratio between capital and quantity produced is variable, and There is full employment in the economy (Keynes 2016). As stated by McCombie and Thirlwall (2016), the major point of neo-classical theory of economic growth is the inclusion of technology along with the variable amount of labor and capital. It also puts emphasis on the event of capital formation and the related decisions of saving and investment, being one of the important determinants of economic growth (Higgins 2017). The model considers that the production function contains two factors, capital and labor and it also has an exogenously determined factor, that is, technology (Peet and Hartwick 2015). The production function is written as: Where Y is the total product, K is the capital, L is the unskilled labor and A is the level of technology. A change in the exogenously determined factor, that is, technology can shift the production function and thereby, changes the level of output (Yang and Ng 2015). In the following diagram, the effect of technology is shown by two labor productivity curve. Labor productivity shifts upwards when there is increase in the level of technology. Due to technological advancement, the economy moves from point A to point E, and the level of investment and savings increases. The labor productivity increases at this point as the capital per labor hour increases from k0 to k*. The basic concept, stated by Benera, Berik and Floro (2015), is that, technology leads to new opportunities for profit. Thus, savings and investment increases, real GDP per capita increases and the diminishing returns to the capital per labor hour reduce the real rate of interest. Neo-classical model of economic growth The economy starts at A and at this point, the real interest rate equals target rate of return. Technological advance pushes the economy upwards to E and the economy moves from E to B as there is an increase in the labor productivity due to technological advancement and increase in capital per labor hour. At point B, again the target return rate and real interest rate becomes equal and growth ends. Difference between the two theories (Using Institutional Analysis) There is a major difference between the two schools of thought in economics. The well known economists explained the concept of economic growth in two very distinct ways. The classical theory of economic growth was applicable to the societies during the 18th and 19th centuries, when production took place by using primitive ways. On the other hand, the neo-classical theory of economic growth was established in the 20th century when the technological revolution was taking place (Dopfer and Potts 2015). It is relevant till today. The classical economists believed in a free market or self regulating economy without any government intervention. They believed in optimal allocation of productive resources for optimum level of production. The neoclassical economists, on the other hand, believed that individuals in the society are working to maximize the utility and the organizations want to maximize profits with perfect information in the market. Hence, it can be said that, in the classical theory, the emphasis is put on the production of products and services with only two factors, labor and capital, while in the neoclassical theory, the actions of the individuals in the society and the decisions regarding savings and investment are considered as important factors determining the level of production and profit (Borner, Brunetti and Weder 2016). A major distinction between the two theories is the consideration of technological advancement in the production process. In the classical theory, the economists did not consider the technological factor and analyzed the growth process on the basis of labor and capital productivity only. However, technology plays an important role in the neoclassical theory. Technological advancement increases the total production, and thereby increasing the scope for capital accumulation. Hence, the productivity of labor increases shifting the labor productivity upwards. Thus, economic growth depends on labor productivity, capital productivity, savings, investment and technological progress (Dopfer and Potts 2015). There are some differences between the two theories, from the point of view of institutional analysis. The institutional analysis refers to the analysis of the structure and mechanisms of the institutions in an economy. This analysis deals with the functioning of the individuals and groups, constructing institutions and their effects on the economy (Powell et al. 2016). Using the institutional analysis, the difference between the two economic growth theories are as follows: Classical theory of economic growth Neo- Classical theory of economic growth Institutional structure is mechanical and impersonal (North 2016) Institutions form a social system The institutions mainly focus on the work and the economic needs of the labor or workers (Scully 2014). Institutions mainly focus on small groups within the organization as well as in the society and on the human and emotional qualities of the employees Organizations put emphasis on rationality and order Organizations put emphasis on the personal and social needs of the workers along with fulfilling the organizational objectives Organizational behavior originates from rules and regulations Organizational behavior originates from feelings, attitudes and sentiment (Lundahl and Wadensjo 2015) Authoritarian practices are used to accomplish the results (Lukacovic and Francis 2016) Democratic practices, recognition of human values and dignities and involvement of workers in decision making are important to accomplish the organizational goals. Dissatisfaction and work alienation arise in the institutions. Satisfied employees focus on increasing the productivity of the institutions. Thus, it can be said that, in the light of institutional approach, there are some important differences between the two theories. While in the classical theory, the institutions followed authoritarian practices to achieve the organizational goals, the institutions, under the neoclassical theory, followed a modern approach to deal with the organizational functions and making profits. Since, there is application of technology in the modern production process; hence, the institutions need to incorporate advanced technology along with the human values in the institutional activities. The classical school of thought focuses on the economic growth that results from the efficient and optimum allocation of productive resources in the economy. They did not consider the technological progress and the involvement of human decisions about the savings and investment. However, in the neoclassical theory, the economists incorporated the technological advancement and other human decisions that can cause major impact on the economy. The modern economies today follow the neoclassical theory of economic growth. The decisions regarding investments and savings as well as rapid technological progress determine the direction and magnitude of the economic growth. References Benera, L., Berik, G. and Floro, M., 2015.Gender, development and globalization: economics as if all people mattered. Routledge. Borner, S., Brunetti, A. and Weder, B., 2016.Political credibility and economic development. Springer. Chakravarty, S., 2017.Alternative approaches to a theory of economic growth: Marx, Marshall and Schumpeter. Orient Longman (1980). Dopfer, K. and Potts, J., 2015.The general theory of economic evolution. Routledge. Hartwell, R.M., 2017.The Industrial Revolution and economic growth(Vol. 4). Taylor Francis. Rosen, H. and Gayer, T., 2014.Public Finance. 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Education. Higgins, B., 2017.Regional development theories and their application. Routledge. Keynes, J.M., 2016.General theory of employment, interest and money. Atlantic Publishers Dist. Kuznets, S., 2016.Six lectures on economic growth. Routledge. Lukacovic, I.I. and Francis, J., 2016. From the Classical School to Today: The Evolution of Stagnation Theories. Lundahl, M. and Wadensjo, E., 2015.Unequal Treatment (Routledge Revivals): A Study in the Neo-Classical Theory of Discrimination. Routledge. McCombie, J. and Thirlwall, A.P., 2016.Economic growth and the balance-of-payments constraint. Springer. North, D.C., 2016. Institutions and economic theory.The American Economist,61(1), pp.72-76. Peet, R. and Hartwick, E., 2015.Theories of development: Contentions, arguments, alternatives. Guilford Publications. Powell, W.W., Oberg, A., Korff, V.P., Oelberger, C. and Kloos, K., 2016. Institutional analysis in a digital era: Mechanisms and methods to understand emerging fields.New themes in institutional analysis: Topics and issues from European research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Scully, G.W., 2014.Constitutional environments and economic growth. Princeton University Press. Yang, X. and Ng, Y.K., 2015.Specialization and economic organization: A new classical microeconomic framework(Vol. 215). Elsevier.

Monday, March 30, 2020

Genocide Essays (612 words) - Genocide, Crimes, Murder,

Genocide GENOCIDE The word ?genocide? has not been in existence for a very long: it was the jurist Lemkin who coined it between the two world wars. The thing itself is as old as humanity and there has never been a societ whose struture has preserved it from committing this crime.(Jean-Paul Sarte) All genocide is a product of history and it always carries the signs of the society from which it springs. The case which we have to judge concerns the largest contemporary capitalist power. It is as such that we must attempt to consider it; in other words, inasmuch as it expresses the economic structure, the political aims and the contradictions of that power. In particular, we must try to understand whether there is an intention of genocide in the war that the American government is fighting against Vietnam. Article 2 of the Convention of 1948 defines genocide on the basis of intention.(Encarta) The Convention was tacitly referring to very recent history. Hitler had declared a deliberate plan to exterminate the Jews; he did not conceal the fact that he was using genocide as a political tactic. The Jew had to be put to death, wherever he came from, not because he had taken up arms or had joined a resistance movement, but just because he was a Jew. The American government, on the other hand, has made no such clear declarations. It even averred that it was going to the rescue of its allies, the South Vietnamese, who had been attacked by the Communists from the North. Is it possible for us, in objectively studying the facts, to unviel their hidden intention?(Bookshelf) And can we, after this examination, say that the armed forces of the USA a re killing Vietnamese in Vietnam for the simple reason that they are Vietnamese? This can only be establishes after a look at history: the structures of war change at the same time as those of society. From 1860 to this day, military motives and objectives have undergone a profound change and the end result of this metamorphosis is precisely the war of ?example' that the USA is waging in Vietnam. It is guilty of being deceitful, evasive, of lying, and lying to itself, embroiling itself every minute a little more, despite the lessons that this unique and unbearable experience has taught, on a path along which there can be no return. It is guilty, by its own admission, of knowingly conducting this war of ?example' to make genocide a challenge and a threat to all peoples. When a peasant dies in his rice field, cut down by a machine-gun, we are all hit. Therefore, the Vietnamese are fighting for all men and the American forces are fighting for all of us. Not just in theory or in the abstract. And not only because genocide is a crime universally condemned by the rights of man.(Jean-Paul Sartre) But because, little by little, this genocidal blackmail is spreading to all humanity, adding to the blackmail of atomic war, This crime is perpetrated under our eyes every day, making accomplices out of those who do mot denounce it. Even today genocide is still alive. Even thought the word genocide is not used, there is no dictator, and people are not being killed, people are still discriminated for the way the look, act, dress, or even talk. I think people need to take a look inside and see exactly what they are doing to other people. Even though there is no set dictator, people still dictate what other people do, say, dress, or even act. Bibliography Genoicide in America Hall, Adam. 1982: Hallmark. Sociology Essays

Saturday, March 7, 2020

A Natural History of the Dead essays

A Natural History of the Dead essays As one begins to dissect Ernest Hemingways short story A Natural History of the Dead, a great deal of meaning can be found through the situations he conveys. Through his commentary and the experiences of Mungo Park, much can be learned about Hemingways views and ideas. Upon quick read, one might think this is a simple-minded story about death and its place in history. However, it actually has a much deeper idea hidden in it. Hemingway is revealing to the reader how trivial death actually is. In fact, A Natural History of the Dead is completely irrelevant except to provide the reader with examples of how death is only a small part in the tremendously large scope of nature and the rest of the world. In his short story, Hemingway provides examples as to why death is just one facet in the big picture of life. Early in his story, Hemingway jump-starts the theme that is to be stressed through the rest of the short story by depicting many smaller experiences and cases. One such story is his description of dead bodies on the battlefield. He explains that one of the most surprising things seen on a battlefield is the paperwork scattered among the bodies. One does not remember the smell of the battlefield as much as the incredible amount of paper strewn about. By way of this example, Hemingway shows that even though a person might die, the rest of life, and everything that person has touched, goes on. After reading this particular part of the story, a real life example immediately came to mind. Throughout the September 11th disaster, it was common knowledge that many of the bodies of the deceased were never found, and most likely never will be. Yet, hundreds of thousands of documents proving these people had lived remain. Financial statements, tax returns, employment records, and so on were e verywhere to be found, but the body of the person often was not. Once again, it shows that death pales in comparison ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

How Can a Small Amount of Money Make a Big Difference Essay

How Can a Small Amount of Money Make a Big Difference - Essay Example The first article, â€Å"Internet Opens World to Microloan Investors†, which the author of the essay will discuss and draw an inference from helps to promote the concept of providing small â€Å"loans† to individuals in developing nations. Whereas providing 25-75 dollars to charity in the United States of America or another developed economy would actually provide little remediation of overall poverty, the authors relate the ways in which certain websites and key individuals have begun fronting very small personal loans or gifts to disenfranchised individuals in a developing country as a means of spurring business and raising the standard of living within these systems. This system is highly beneficial due to the fact that it connects would-be entrepreneurs with valuable access to start-up capital they so desperately need in order to realize a given business aspiration. Again, due to the fact that the developing world has such a decreased cost of entry, oftentimes even very small loans are able to foster a business half a world away. Similarly, the second article, â€Å"Simple, Easy Ways to Give Back† helps to engage the reader with the many opportunities that exist within the periphery of the consumer as ways in which they can seek to develop their philanthropic side. For instance, the article relates how those that are technophiles can easily utilize their mobile phone platform as a way to text small charitable donations to the charity of their choice. Additionally, the article relates to the ways in which donating the leftover amount on a gift card can be beneficial to specific charities. By utilizing web-based charitable organizations, the â€Å"loose change† on store gift cards can rapidly and efficiently be converted into a charitable donation.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

'Better leadership is too often proposed as a panacea for Essay

'Better leadership is too often proposed as a panacea for organisational problems which have other orgins'. Critically argue for or against this propostion with examples - Essay Example fined as the process by which an individual has influence over others to motivate them in attaining the goals that will help the organisation to move in a right direction. I agree with the notion that better leadership is too often proposed as a panacea of organisational problems which have other origins as people who have good and effective leadership skills can address all problems in a highly efficient manner. In every organisation, there are various problems and all of them can be resolved when their root causes are identified and remedial steps are taken to eradicate the foundation of the issues as it will ensure that organisational productivity is enhanced (Hays, 2008). In my opinion, better leadership is the solution for various organisational issues such as job dissatisfaction as there can be a gap between the job requirements and the jobholder’s personal attributes; with the help of an influencing leader, the jobholder can be motivated to deliver a good performance. However, it can be argued that a person’s job should be redesigned so that he/she is willing to make a productive contribution in the organisation’s required level of performances (Yukle, 2006). According to Bass and Bass (2008) and Howard and Wellins (2008), although leaders can motivate the employees to increase their efforts but if there is a conflict between the job requirements and employee’s skill level then the root cause should be eliminated. Wheelen and Hunger (2005) argue that leadership can temporarily resolve the problem but in the long-term it can hamper the performance of employees which can create ineffectiveness in the organisation. In my opinion, better leadership can definitely influence the employees to enhance their productivity which can improve their contribution level for organisation’s improved performance. It has been rightly stated by Mayo and Nohria (2005) that better leadership will provide more chances for resolving the organisational issues that have

Monday, January 27, 2020

Impact of Advertising on Fashion

Impact of Advertising on Fashion Introduction: The use of advertising in the fashion industry was started as early as in the Victorian period. Advertising is been very important to the fashion industry as its one way of reaching a mass group of people quickly, as fashion today is very competitive and need speed marketing. Advertising is used from the high street fashion retailers to the low fashion retailers. According to (Dittrich,2000) it has been estimated that an average women sees between 400 to 600 advertisements per day. The fashionable female silhouette has changed with time and the body has been manipulated frequently (Fay and Price 1994) The most famous type of fashion that todays consumers goes for is the fast fashion, where the latest line of clothing from a designer is copied by the fashion retailer especially stores in the middle fashion market like Top Shop, Marks and Spencers, Next , New look, and HM. Thirty-two percent say that they get their clothing ideas from fashion magazines, up from 23% the previous year. ( cottoninc 2000). In fast fashion, sourcing and buying decisions are compounded by the speed by which decisions have to be made and innovation introduced into the store (Bruce Daly 2006). The introduction to the store can be given through a mass media that is advertising, advertising can be done through many ways like television, print, ad radio, an even through word of mouth. According to Aaker et al (1994) advertising is effective to influence consumer attitude. Govoni et al mentioned that the most images of well-liked brands are established by successful advertising. Modern consumers want to be entertained as well as informed through advertising (Lea-Greenwood 2002). In 1996 companies invested more than $1 billion in athletic endorsements deals and approximately $ 10 billion more to advertise and promote the celebrities endorsements (Farrell et al., 2000). A recent estimate indicates that approximately 25 percent of American commercials use celebrity endorses (Shimp, 2003). Celebrity endorsements have become prevalent technique in advertising in the past recent years. The consumers attention is the most important to the retailers. The retailers use advertising as one of the strongest aspect to catch their consumers attention. in Japan, there are roughly 70 percent of Japanese commercials featuring a celebrity (Hus and McDonald, 2002). Advertising also has some negative and positive effects, but in this paper both the aspects will be investigated. Fashion brands and retailers have a long-standing relationship with womens magazines and, more recently, with mens magazines (Mintel 2005). Fast fashion always need more advertising than the high street fashion market, the only way the can reach out to a mass audience is through media and through word of mouth. It has been estimated that the average woman sees between 400 and 600 adverts per day (Dittrich, 2000). Looking particularly at this age group who all read magazines and one of the famous magazines is the heat magazine, where this magazine compares the style and clothing of celebrities and give out the cheaper way to gain the look of the celebrities. In todays star-focused society, it may be more accurate to see celebrities and fashion magazines as a confluence in womens apparel-buying decision process. (Cottoninc 2000). The fast fashion retailers have to choose the right kind of medium to reach the particular target audience and should help the retailers to reach out to their consumers before their competitors reach. But while the celebrity influence does seem to ebb proportionally as a woman ages, it still plays a large role in the wardrobes of average women. According to the Monitor, 26% of women ages 25 to 34, and 24% of women ages 35 to 55, indicated that celebs served as their personal fashion innovators (cottoninc 2004). This fashion for slimness portrayed throughout almost all womens fashion advertising provides a standard for social comparison and respectively heightened dissatisfaction amongst females (Graner Grafinkel, 1980). When confronted with ultra thin models on a regular basis this is bound to have an effect especially when the thin ideal are totally unrealistic of womens bodies today (Hamburg, 2002). Celebrities are our new designers, relates Irenka Jakubiak, editor-in-chief of Accessories Magazine, the trade publication (cottoninc 2004). The Red Carpet is our new runway. Designers are going overboard to make the product, and manufacturers and retailers are turning stuff around fast to have it available for consumers (cottoninc 2004). In early 2001, approximately one in five marketing programs in the UK featured some type of celebrity endorse, with the number closer to one in four programs in the US (Erdogan et al 2001). Research has found that celebrities are more effective than other types of endorsers, such as the professional expert, the co mpany manger, or the typical consumer (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). Glamour editor Jo Elvin said: Kates back with a vengeance. Her maverick approach to fashion is an inspiration.(smh 2008) Advertising also helps to sell new products to the consumers, this way it helps the product to be marketed in the industry quick and efficiently. Advertising also manipulates the consumers using psychology in most of the advertisements. A woman who may not directly point to a celebrity influence in considering her wardrobe is likely to purchase something within a trend that can typically be tied back to a famous person. (Cottoninc 2004). Fighting AIDS is always of great importance, and HM is overwhelmed with the enthusiasm and the commitment from each and every celebrity involved in this collection. Ann-Sofie Johansson, HM head of design. (Onenationmagazine 2009). Celebrities are the trendsetters of our time. And they are wearing clothing and accessories that are more accessible to the general public (visavismag 2009). In the end, celebrities and modern fashion will always be inseparable commodities, and will continue to influence each other, and in turn the American public. (Helium 2009). Researches suggest that endorsers are more effective where there is a fit between the endorsers and the endorsed products. (Till and Busler, 2000). Psychologists Petty and Casioppo suggest the Elaboration Likehood Model (ELM) to explain the process consumers to be persuaded by the advertising message (Shimp, 2003). In a recent report in The Sunday Telegraph, Ashley Sharpe, head of money research at Which? Magazine stated: The danger is that, if the use of a credible celebrity is combined with a message that sounds great but doesnt tell you the full story, then many more people could be taken in, because they trust the person promoting the product. (Fashionunited 2004). 2.1 Aim: To analysis the role of advertising and body image in the context of fashion and manipulation of the consumers. 3.1 Objectives: To analysis the use of advertising in the fashion industry. To analysis the manipulation of consumers through advertisements by the fashion retailers. To analysis the impact of celebrities on fashion and consumers. To analysis the relationship between fashion and body image. 4.1Literature Review: In todays world to market a product and to make to reach the target audience on time is done through advertisements, where media is the one of the medium that can reach out to mass target consumers on time and to make the product famous among the consumers. The medias images and messages become what they see as a soothing voice in a storm of conflict, confrontation and confusion (Thomsen et al, 2001). In aspects to fast fashion the ideology of the retailers should reach the consumers fast, as the fast fashion industry is competitive. The most advanced marketing companies in the country had learned how to adapt their strategies to this new medium and it completely changed their perspectives. (Henry, 1986). Looking at the fashion market like Top Shop, Next, Marks and Spencers, New Look, HM. tend to spend much more than the other fashion retailer like Zara who does not spend anything of advertising for them marketing their products is through their own customers, where they believe word of mouth is more than enough to promote their products, this only helps to reach out a small group of people where the mass consumers wont be aware of their latest collection in store. On the other than the other retailers spend a lot on advertising and try to reach out a mass group of audience and market their product fast, this also helps to see the demand of the particular garment and helps not to over stock. The relatively small size of the UK and its heavy population concentrations allow this system to work particularly well in the interest of the marketers. (Henry, 1986). Through advertising most of the retailing companies develop their marketing strategy. Press advertising was the most important medium for 18 of the top 30 fashion retailer advertisers, and seven spent their entire advertising budget here. (Mintel 2005). Advertising is now taking up the upper hand in the fashion industry, which helps the retailers to market their product. Advertising is mostly done through manipulating the consumers, but the consumer does not like the idea of the retailers manipulating them, this is where psychology advertising comes into place. In this type of advertising is where they use colours, shapes, sounds, etc. The fashion industry works in this way by using adverts that imply by purchasing the brand the consumers will be buying the social esteem and image of model (Anderson et al, 2000). The advertisements are made to catch the consumers attention to the product. Although the highest paid super model of the 1900s were not classed as waifs i.e. Cindy Crawford, designers and magazines chose to use extremely thin models to advertise clothing and beauty products (Gorgan, 1999) Marks and Spencers have one of the biggest advertising budgets in the fashion industry. With an estimated  £ 43.5 million in 2006/07, making up a 12.0% share in the total (Mintel 2007). After Marks and Spencers Next have spent a lot of advertising their products. There are positive and negative aspects of fashion advertising. The positive aspect helps the retailers to boost their income whilst the consumers get the latest range of copied clothing from designer at a lower price which help them to look fashionable and to keep a track of the latest fashion. Employment opportunities for women are steadily improving, meaning that they have ever greater spending power and economic autonomy. They are the most important consumers of clothing and footwear, buying not only for themselves, but also for their children and male partners. Additionally, they enjoy fashion advertising much more than men and more influenced by it. (Mintel 2007). The negative aspect is the fashion is always related to skinny, thin, flawless skin models, this makes the consumers want to look like them. For the retailers is that fashion is one industry which changes season to season and the clothing line as well changes according to the current trend as fashion changes quickly the retailers tend to spend more on advertising very time a new trend is come into fashion. The average woman is estimated to see between 400- 600 adverts per day (Dittrich, 2000). One of the main reasons that advertising is used by the fashion retailers is to grab the attention of the consumers. Most of the fast fashion retailers target audience is from the age group 20 – 40 years. Teenagers ages 16-19 are more inclined to use fashion advertising to get inspiration (38% compared to 18% on average) (Mintel 2007). The retailers keeps in mind the age group and make the advertisements which will be liked by the group and catch their attention. The other way the retailers get the attentions from the consumers is by sale and offers which will make a consumer to walk into the store. On the other than magazine also help the fast fashion retailers to sell the garment faster as they compare the celebrities style which a cheaper alternative to gain the same style by the consumers. Fashion and beauty magazine availability is immense in society today (Gordon, 2000). Fashion maga zines are a great influence on the women of today where they want to look like the celebrities. This influence the consumers mind of being thin and skinny to gain the style of the celebrities. As the amount of media attention devoted to celebrities increase its apparent that celebrities them selves have taken up the position of role models (Weaver 1997). 4.2 Impact of body image: In todays world fast paced society relationships and judgments about others start with outward appearance while personality and inner values play a secondary role (Anderson, 2000). Western society is obsessed with body image. Women want to be thinner; men want to be more muscular (BBC, 2009). The feminist perspective suggest that in the 1960s thinness was equated with independence and success- today it has become the defining criteria for feminine beauty (Kilbourne, 1994). This has become a very important factor among people of today to look good outside, which has a major influence on the daily lifestyle of the person. In any form of interaction or communication verbal cues account for only 7% of total impact, vocals cues for 38%, whilst facial cues account for a major 55% (Mehrabian, 1972). With the face playing a central role in the way we think and feel about both ourselves and others (Partridge, 1996). The world that we live in has move towards to a position which has a big stre ss on appearance. Preoccupation with the visual image if self and others has become an obsession in a society where people continually compare themselves to cultural ideals of beauty (Coward, 1984). Advertisements for women reflected changing notions of the female body shape away from sever body chart to angular boyish shape (p.76, Reekie, 1987). The ideal human body began way back in time, where it started in ancient Greece. Viewing the body as potentially godlike, it was the Greeks who began the custom of treating the body as an aesthetic object (Seid, 1989). The society of today has experienced a big outburst of interest in the human body like never before. Todays consumers are very conscious of what they wear and how they look from the out side. Reekie (1978) suggested that one can look to advertisements for women they reflect the changing ideals of body shape. This has happened as a result of a huge influx of visual images of the human body circulated by the mass media (Shilling, 1997). The body beautiful augmented by fashion advertising in particular has helped lay the foundation for our preoccupation with looks and the priority we give to visual appearance. (Coward, 1984). Physical attractiveness is central to human communication as virtually all communication situations involve visual contact and the more physically a ttractive a person is, the more favourably they are respond to (Patzer, op cit). Other studies consolidate this view and results have indicated that more physically attractive people will have socially exciting and more active lives than less attractive people (Bassili, 1981). Body image is the term widely accepted as internal representation of your own outer appearance: your own unique perception of your body (Thompson et al, 1990). Physical attractiveness trend is a belief that an individual should look good and get better in looking good, which enables physically attractiveness. This enhancement is seen by many as a natural instinct that has been a trait of mankind since ancient times (Fiser and Fiserova). There is a huge money and time spent in cosmetic surgery in todays world, in order to look like their idols. As in the western society there is an increasing importance in looking good physically. The physically attractiveness phenomenon is deeply entrenched in modern society a nd there seems no future development likely to reduce it importance (Patzer, 1985). What is beautiful is good which was said by Dion et al (1972). When a study was taken by Dion et al found that physically attractive people have more socially attractive personality, they have happier marriages and in a whole their lives are happier and more successfully than the one who are less attractive. When women were asked whether they were willing to sacrifice comfort for fashion, 40% said yes, up 3.7% from 1998. (Cottoninc 2000). 4.3The impact of Ideal body image on consumers: In todays consumers society where womens bodies are frequently used to sell products, the ultimate commodity has become the female ideal body image. (Orbach, 1993). Since the 1960s the ideal body for women bodies has become lighter while real bodies have been getting heavier (Garneret al 1980). This has resulted in a bigger difference between the real and the ideal (Benson,1997). As popular models and actress represent current female ideals it is necessary to examine their depictions in the media (Wiseman et a, 1990). Today a lot of consumers are overwhelmed because of media. The effects that advertisements have on the consumers have changed everything from their fashion to their lifestyle in the society. Circulated as the norm, notions about the ideal are culturally specific trends that become mistaken for reality (Gorgan, 1999). The concept of an ideal body is given to us by the society of the world of today. The ideal now dictates a slim- hard – toned body (Benson, 1997). this perfect female body would be between five foot five and five foot eight, long legged, tanned and vigours looking (p.39 Coward, 1984). The media has drilled into the minds of people about the ideal body as being thin, tall and looking good to the society. With links to neurobiology, ideals are viewed as in-built responses guiding men and women in how they want to look and how they want others to look (Anderson, 2000). Overweight people are discriminated against in a culture that is unforgiving and judgmental towards fat people (Anderson, 2000). An ideal body for women has to perfect without any flaws. Achieving the ideal body will take time and money, where people are willing to spend these days. There are people in the society will go all the way out to look perfect and get their ideal body shape, even if the person has to go through many cosmetic surgery. In advertising technology has over taken, today every celebrities and super models have their photo shoot airbrushed before come out in magazines. Many of the images seen are artificially constructed using modern photographic techniques and air brushing (Coward, 1984). Although consumers know that these images are modified to look nice, they still opt for cosmetic surgery. Among other proposals are for success rates to be included on cosmetic surgery adverts and for local sports centres to be made more female friendly by being cleaner and safer (BBC, 2009). There are many celebrities have gone through many cosmetic surgeries and these consumers think this is the ideal body image and start to admired. Airbrushing should be banned in advertisements aimed at children to tackle body image pressure, say the Liberal Democrats. (BBC, 2009). President Douglas McGeorge has said he was particularly concerned about younger vulnerable readers of magazines who are being targeted very heavily (BBC, 2009) Although it is true that women may be entrapped in this system if beauty, the potential to change society and resist cultural pressure is negligible (Bordo, 1997). Smith (1990) believes that women should actively seek to achieve the ideal body in a form of femininity, body dissatisfaction is positive. He also argued that does not take in account the negative consequences of body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and eating disorders. This also brings in the male to be more dominated and stronger than compared to women, where women are pressured to be thin and weak. The view also ignores the role of the fashion industry, which is said to dictate the ideal (Grogan, 1999). When a study was conducted on teenage boys (Huenemann et al, 1966) found that more than half of the response wanted bigger biceps, bigger chest and bigger shoulder. This should that the even male are now getting conscious about their body image and when it is looked back , the media started about in women and then now in men. A recent study says that cosmetic surgery is increasing rapidly in men. It has also been suggested that male dissatisfaction is more pronounced in older men (Anderson, 2000). Although men have different perspective of body image when compared to women. As women are objectified for the active male gaze, they become objects of desire and all emphasis is place on their bodies. (Mulvey, 1980). 36% women seriously consider plastic surgery cause theyre unhappy with the way they look. 90% of women said their bodies made them feel down and they think about it everyday. 50% of school girls say they are on a diet (BBC, 2001). The focus on womens appearance has got out of hand no-one really has perfect skin, perfect hair and a perfect figure, but women and young girls increasingly feel that nothing less than perfect will do.(BBC,2009). Body image is a persons subjective evaluation of what it means to them to have that body within their culture (Grogan, 1999). 4.3 Effect of celebrity advertising on consumers and society: Tellis, (1998) defined advertising as communication a firms offer to customers by paid media or space. There is no doubt that advertising is a formative influenced within modern Western culture (Pollay, 1986). According to recent research statistics, the number of celebrity advertisements has doubled in the past ten years. (Brandchannel ,2006). There is now little dispute that the content of commercial television is primarily a vehicle to deliver audiences to advertise to advertisers and that glossy magazines serve that same purpose (p.75, Giles, 2003). Studies show that we are significantly more dissatisfied with our own appearance after being shown TV ads featuring exceptionally slim and beautiful people. (BBC, 2001). The effect that advertising has on the consumers of today is very big impact. Studies have also shown that women who read fashion magazines are more likely to have poor body image and suffer from eating disorders (Harrison and Cantor, 1997). By becoming a reference point against which comparisons are made, fashion adverts can greatly effect men and womens body esteem (Grogan, 1999). When a survey conducted by Glamour magazine (1984) found that 75% of women taught that they were fat. The advertisement is based on the marketing strategy of the company, when there is a marketing outcome its generally changing the behaviour of the consumers. The process are classified as cognitive that are know as consumers attitude (Tellis, 2004). According to Foxall (1998) consumers attitude is recognised as a crucial link between the consumers thinks about the products and advertisements and what they buy in the market place. Aker et al (1994) suggested that the attitude concept is an important factor to advertising Management. The attitude of the consumers in one of the important factor for a company to plan their marketing strategy, and to find out the consumers attitude can be done through advertisements. The distortions are characteristic of anorexia and bulimia are some times literally and concretely evident in fashion advertising (p.134, Gordon, 2000). First, studying the advertising efficiency on market outcome is mainly for accountability (Tellis, 2004). Few advertisements depict mundane levels of attractiveness and instead exclusively star the overwhelming handsome and beautiful (Patzer, 1985). It is such models that become icons and set the ideals to which people try to adhere (Ibanga, 2002). As the fashion industry is said to represent the true ideal of beauty models create the standard to which people are to meet (Winkler, 1994). The task of the advertisers is to favourably dispose viewers to his product, his means, by and large, to show a sparkling version of that product in the context of glamorous events. The implication is that if you buy the one, you are on the way to realizing the other- and you should want to (p.26, Goffman, 1979) Fashion has become a global business since the 1960s to dress to have success and the power of the brand has become more significant in the past few years. The fashion advertisings has become a very powerful and a multi-pound business, as the brands have become more of a social symbol in the society of today. the survey found that online advertising could extend the reach of an ad by about 10% and increase brand awareness by around 6% (BBC,2003) Fashion plays a very major part of peoples lives. As models become role models, consumers are increasingly growing up with feelings of complete inadequacy attractive people are repeatedly shown in adverts on a daily basis (Body Image, 1998). In fashion adverts directed at both men and women the consumers is seduced, dazzled and offered a visual feast with the central piece, the object of desire being the model (Winkler, 1994). When a study was conducted by Garner (1997) among men and women how fashion models influenced their feelings about th eir appearance, 27% of women said that the always or more often compared themselves to models in magazines and 28% said that they study the shape of the models. Modelling came to epitomise dominant characteristics of western femininity : the importance of appearance; fetishisation of the body; manipulation and moulding of the body; the discipline and labour associated with beauty and body maintenance; the equation of youth with femininity lifestyles (p.70 Craik, 1993). The Advertising Standards Authority said they received only a small handful of complaints on the issue. (BBC, 2009) In advertising magazines is one of the most important media to fashion to advertise their product, this results to a heavy use of magazine among the female consumers. The same applies to reading fashion magazines. Experiments show that magazine photographs of super-thin models produce depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity and body-dissatisfaction. (BBC, 2001). The volume of content is growing and it is trapping young people in particular, into unhealthy obsessions about their own bodies (BBC, 2008). The fashion industry works in this way by using adverts that imply that by purchasing the brand the consumer will be buying the social esteem and image of model (Anderson, 2000). Thousands and billions of dollars came to ride on the common determination that these women were the most beautiful and fashionable in the world. It was a conspiracy bent on harnessing them to purely commercials needs (p.149, Howell, 2000) President Douglas McGeorge has said he was particularly concerned about younger vulnerable readers of magazines who are being targeted very heavily (BBC, 2009). Men and women increasingly get their ideas of what they should look like from the imagery they see in the media (BBC, 2008). Highly attractive models act only to perpetuate such views, lowering satisfaction among viewers. (Grogan, 1999). WHERE WOMEN GET THEIR CLOTHING IDEAS: 1999 1998 +/- pts. Already Own and Like 52.7% 50.4% -2.3 Store Displays 47.6% 44.3% -3.3 People I See Regularly 36.1% 38.6% +2.5 Catalogs 35.4% 36.3% +0.9 Family Members 23.7% 20.1% -3.6 Commercials/Ads 28.8% 25.6% -3.2 Fashion Magazines 23.2% 31.9% +8.7 Celebrities 10.0% 14.9% +4.9 Salespeople in Stores 12.4% 13.7% +1.3 Looking at the table above shows a clear view of what people look up to in terms of fashion in the year 2000. The highest in the table is the fashion magazines and then come the celebrities. This gives a very clear view that most of the consumers around the world follow the advertisement to get their fashion sense and these days it has a big effect on the society and their personality. According to Hall-Duncan (1979) claims that the content of fashion advertisements, its just not about clothes but also about the image that brings out the attitude of the person. Therefore in a sense it is both the cause and effect (Patzer, 1985). Thompson et al claims that a significant number of women and girls are exposed to print media. Fashion and beauty magazine availability is immense in society today (Gordon). †¦womens beauty and fashion magazines, which may be among the most influential media formats in perpetuating and reinforcing the socio-cultural preference for thinness and in creating a sense of dissatisfaction with ones own body ( p.49, Harrison and Cantor, 1997). In the society most of the people are influenced by the advertisements. This influence is not directly applicable to most endorsement advertising because there is very little interaction between the endorser and the consumer in the communication process (Kamins, 1989). Followers of socio-cultural theories have accused womens magazines of being propaganda for the desirability if the thin ideal (Wolf, 1990). The medias images and messages become what they see as a soothing voice in a storm of conflict, confrontation and confusion (p.60, Thomsen et al, 2001). By the first decade of the twentieth century, the fashion models of Paris had already established a standard of extreme thinness (Gordon, 2000). Vogue employee wrote that the figure of the time was straighter with less of a bust and hips, more waist and long lean legs (Steele, 1985). The classic and most widely utilized method is the paid-for media advertisement mostly found in fashion magazines and on television. (Brandchannel, 2006). In receiving messages from parents, peers, mass media and other outlets, young people undergo a process of socialization in which they learn how to be consumers in the marketplace. (Lear et al, 2009). The presence and presentation of celebrity role models in pre-adolescent magazines, as well as details regarding the kinds of activities the celebrity participates in, may powerfully affect how girls view their role in todays society (Fabrianesi et al , 2008). 4.4 Celebritys endorsements: Any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement (McCracken, 1989). Aaker et al (1997) says that An endorser is a source of the information in the advertisements, which plays an important role in persuasive communication. Celebritys endorsements gives out an image that you move a step closer to the idols that the consumers admire by just buying one piece of garment. Celebrity endorsement transfers the personality and status of the celebrity as successful, wealthy, and distinctive directly to the brand. (brandchann Impact of Advertising on Fashion Impact of Advertising on Fashion Introduction: The use of advertising in the fashion industry was started as early as in the Victorian period. Advertising is been very important to the fashion industry as its one way of reaching a mass group of people quickly, as fashion today is very competitive and need speed marketing. Advertising is used from the high street fashion retailers to the low fashion retailers. According to (Dittrich,2000) it has been estimated that an average women sees between 400 to 600 advertisements per day. The fashionable female silhouette has changed with time and the body has been manipulated frequently (Fay and Price 1994) The most famous type of fashion that todays consumers goes for is the fast fashion, where the latest line of clothing from a designer is copied by the fashion retailer especially stores in the middle fashion market like Top Shop, Marks and Spencers, Next , New look, and HM. Thirty-two percent say that they get their clothing ideas from fashion magazines, up from 23% the previous year. ( cottoninc 2000). In fast fashion, sourcing and buying decisions are compounded by the speed by which decisions have to be made and innovation introduced into the store (Bruce Daly 2006). The introduction to the store can be given through a mass media that is advertising, advertising can be done through many ways like television, print, ad radio, an even through word of mouth. According to Aaker et al (1994) advertising is effective to influence consumer attitude. Govoni et al mentioned that the most images of well-liked brands are established by successful advertising. Modern consumers want to be entertained as well as informed through advertising (Lea-Greenwood 2002). In 1996 companies invested more than $1 billion in athletic endorsements deals and approximately $ 10 billion more to advertise and promote the celebrities endorsements (Farrell et al., 2000). A recent estimate indicates that approximately 25 percent of American commercials use celebrity endorses (Shimp, 2003). Celebrity endorsements have become prevalent technique in advertising in the past recent years. The consumers attention is the most important to the retailers. The retailers use advertising as one of the strongest aspect to catch their consumers attention. in Japan, there are roughly 70 percent of Japanese commercials featuring a celebrity (Hus and McDonald, 2002). Advertising also has some negative and positive effects, but in this paper both the aspects will be investigated. Fashion brands and retailers have a long-standing relationship with womens magazines and, more recently, with mens magazines (Mintel 2005). Fast fashion always need more advertising than the high street fashion market, the only way the can reach out to a mass audience is through media and through word of mouth. It has been estimated that the average woman sees between 400 and 600 adverts per day (Dittrich, 2000). Looking particularly at this age group who all read magazines and one of the famous magazines is the heat magazine, where this magazine compares the style and clothing of celebrities and give out the cheaper way to gain the look of the celebrities. In todays star-focused society, it may be more accurate to see celebrities and fashion magazines as a confluence in womens apparel-buying decision process. (Cottoninc 2000). The fast fashion retailers have to choose the right kind of medium to reach the particular target audience and should help the retailers to reach out to their consumers before their competitors reach. But while the celebrity influence does seem to ebb proportionally as a woman ages, it still plays a large role in the wardrobes of average women. According to the Monitor, 26% of women ages 25 to 34, and 24% of women ages 35 to 55, indicated that celebs served as their personal fashion innovators (cottoninc 2004). This fashion for slimness portrayed throughout almost all womens fashion advertising provides a standard for social comparison and respectively heightened dissatisfaction amongst females (Graner Grafinkel, 1980). When confronted with ultra thin models on a regular basis this is bound to have an effect especially when the thin ideal are totally unrealistic of womens bodies today (Hamburg, 2002). Celebrities are our new designers, relates Irenka Jakubiak, editor-in-chief of Accessories Magazine, the trade publication (cottoninc 2004). The Red Carpet is our new runway. Designers are going overboard to make the product, and manufacturers and retailers are turning stuff around fast to have it available for consumers (cottoninc 2004). In early 2001, approximately one in five marketing programs in the UK featured some type of celebrity endorse, with the number closer to one in four programs in the US (Erdogan et al 2001). Research has found that celebrities are more effective than other types of endorsers, such as the professional expert, the co mpany manger, or the typical consumer (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). Glamour editor Jo Elvin said: Kates back with a vengeance. Her maverick approach to fashion is an inspiration.(smh 2008) Advertising also helps to sell new products to the consumers, this way it helps the product to be marketed in the industry quick and efficiently. Advertising also manipulates the consumers using psychology in most of the advertisements. A woman who may not directly point to a celebrity influence in considering her wardrobe is likely to purchase something within a trend that can typically be tied back to a famous person. (Cottoninc 2004). Fighting AIDS is always of great importance, and HM is overwhelmed with the enthusiasm and the commitment from each and every celebrity involved in this collection. Ann-Sofie Johansson, HM head of design. (Onenationmagazine 2009). Celebrities are the trendsetters of our time. And they are wearing clothing and accessories that are more accessible to the general public (visavismag 2009). In the end, celebrities and modern fashion will always be inseparable commodities, and will continue to influence each other, and in turn the American public. (Helium 2009). Researches suggest that endorsers are more effective where there is a fit between the endorsers and the endorsed products. (Till and Busler, 2000). Psychologists Petty and Casioppo suggest the Elaboration Likehood Model (ELM) to explain the process consumers to be persuaded by the advertising message (Shimp, 2003). In a recent report in The Sunday Telegraph, Ashley Sharpe, head of money research at Which? Magazine stated: The danger is that, if the use of a credible celebrity is combined with a message that sounds great but doesnt tell you the full story, then many more people could be taken in, because they trust the person promoting the product. (Fashionunited 2004). 2.1 Aim: To analysis the role of advertising and body image in the context of fashion and manipulation of the consumers. 3.1 Objectives: To analysis the use of advertising in the fashion industry. To analysis the manipulation of consumers through advertisements by the fashion retailers. To analysis the impact of celebrities on fashion and consumers. To analysis the relationship between fashion and body image. 4.1Literature Review: In todays world to market a product and to make to reach the target audience on time is done through advertisements, where media is the one of the medium that can reach out to mass target consumers on time and to make the product famous among the consumers. The medias images and messages become what they see as a soothing voice in a storm of conflict, confrontation and confusion (Thomsen et al, 2001). In aspects to fast fashion the ideology of the retailers should reach the consumers fast, as the fast fashion industry is competitive. The most advanced marketing companies in the country had learned how to adapt their strategies to this new medium and it completely changed their perspectives. (Henry, 1986). Looking at the fashion market like Top Shop, Next, Marks and Spencers, New Look, HM. tend to spend much more than the other fashion retailer like Zara who does not spend anything of advertising for them marketing their products is through their own customers, where they believe word of mouth is more than enough to promote their products, this only helps to reach out a small group of people where the mass consumers wont be aware of their latest collection in store. On the other than the other retailers spend a lot on advertising and try to reach out a mass group of audience and market their product fast, this also helps to see the demand of the particular garment and helps not to over stock. The relatively small size of the UK and its heavy population concentrations allow this system to work particularly well in the interest of the marketers. (Henry, 1986). Through advertising most of the retailing companies develop their marketing strategy. Press advertising was the most important medium for 18 of the top 30 fashion retailer advertisers, and seven spent their entire advertising budget here. (Mintel 2005). Advertising is now taking up the upper hand in the fashion industry, which helps the retailers to market their product. Advertising is mostly done through manipulating the consumers, but the consumer does not like the idea of the retailers manipulating them, this is where psychology advertising comes into place. In this type of advertising is where they use colours, shapes, sounds, etc. The fashion industry works in this way by using adverts that imply by purchasing the brand the consumers will be buying the social esteem and image of model (Anderson et al, 2000). The advertisements are made to catch the consumers attention to the product. Although the highest paid super model of the 1900s were not classed as waifs i.e. Cindy Crawford, designers and magazines chose to use extremely thin models to advertise clothing and beauty products (Gorgan, 1999) Marks and Spencers have one of the biggest advertising budgets in the fashion industry. With an estimated  £ 43.5 million in 2006/07, making up a 12.0% share in the total (Mintel 2007). After Marks and Spencers Next have spent a lot of advertising their products. There are positive and negative aspects of fashion advertising. The positive aspect helps the retailers to boost their income whilst the consumers get the latest range of copied clothing from designer at a lower price which help them to look fashionable and to keep a track of the latest fashion. Employment opportunities for women are steadily improving, meaning that they have ever greater spending power and economic autonomy. They are the most important consumers of clothing and footwear, buying not only for themselves, but also for their children and male partners. Additionally, they enjoy fashion advertising much more than men and more influenced by it. (Mintel 2007). The negative aspect is the fashion is always related to skinny, thin, flawless skin models, this makes the consumers want to look like them. For the retailers is that fashion is one industry which changes season to season and the clothing line as well changes according to the current trend as fashion changes quickly the retailers tend to spend more on advertising very time a new trend is come into fashion. The average woman is estimated to see between 400- 600 adverts per day (Dittrich, 2000). One of the main reasons that advertising is used by the fashion retailers is to grab the attention of the consumers. Most of the fast fashion retailers target audience is from the age group 20 – 40 years. Teenagers ages 16-19 are more inclined to use fashion advertising to get inspiration (38% compared to 18% on average) (Mintel 2007). The retailers keeps in mind the age group and make the advertisements which will be liked by the group and catch their attention. The other way the retailers get the attentions from the consumers is by sale and offers which will make a consumer to walk into the store. On the other than magazine also help the fast fashion retailers to sell the garment faster as they compare the celebrities style which a cheaper alternative to gain the same style by the consumers. Fashion and beauty magazine availability is immense in society today (Gordon, 2000). Fashion maga zines are a great influence on the women of today where they want to look like the celebrities. This influence the consumers mind of being thin and skinny to gain the style of the celebrities. As the amount of media attention devoted to celebrities increase its apparent that celebrities them selves have taken up the position of role models (Weaver 1997). 4.2 Impact of body image: In todays world fast paced society relationships and judgments about others start with outward appearance while personality and inner values play a secondary role (Anderson, 2000). Western society is obsessed with body image. Women want to be thinner; men want to be more muscular (BBC, 2009). The feminist perspective suggest that in the 1960s thinness was equated with independence and success- today it has become the defining criteria for feminine beauty (Kilbourne, 1994). This has become a very important factor among people of today to look good outside, which has a major influence on the daily lifestyle of the person. In any form of interaction or communication verbal cues account for only 7% of total impact, vocals cues for 38%, whilst facial cues account for a major 55% (Mehrabian, 1972). With the face playing a central role in the way we think and feel about both ourselves and others (Partridge, 1996). The world that we live in has move towards to a position which has a big stre ss on appearance. Preoccupation with the visual image if self and others has become an obsession in a society where people continually compare themselves to cultural ideals of beauty (Coward, 1984). Advertisements for women reflected changing notions of the female body shape away from sever body chart to angular boyish shape (p.76, Reekie, 1987). The ideal human body began way back in time, where it started in ancient Greece. Viewing the body as potentially godlike, it was the Greeks who began the custom of treating the body as an aesthetic object (Seid, 1989). The society of today has experienced a big outburst of interest in the human body like never before. Todays consumers are very conscious of what they wear and how they look from the out side. Reekie (1978) suggested that one can look to advertisements for women they reflect the changing ideals of body shape. This has happened as a result of a huge influx of visual images of the human body circulated by the mass media (Shilling, 1997). The body beautiful augmented by fashion advertising in particular has helped lay the foundation for our preoccupation with looks and the priority we give to visual appearance. (Coward, 1984). Physical attractiveness is central to human communication as virtually all communication situations involve visual contact and the more physically a ttractive a person is, the more favourably they are respond to (Patzer, op cit). Other studies consolidate this view and results have indicated that more physically attractive people will have socially exciting and more active lives than less attractive people (Bassili, 1981). Body image is the term widely accepted as internal representation of your own outer appearance: your own unique perception of your body (Thompson et al, 1990). Physical attractiveness trend is a belief that an individual should look good and get better in looking good, which enables physically attractiveness. This enhancement is seen by many as a natural instinct that has been a trait of mankind since ancient times (Fiser and Fiserova). There is a huge money and time spent in cosmetic surgery in todays world, in order to look like their idols. As in the western society there is an increasing importance in looking good physically. The physically attractiveness phenomenon is deeply entrenched in modern society a nd there seems no future development likely to reduce it importance (Patzer, 1985). What is beautiful is good which was said by Dion et al (1972). When a study was taken by Dion et al found that physically attractive people have more socially attractive personality, they have happier marriages and in a whole their lives are happier and more successfully than the one who are less attractive. When women were asked whether they were willing to sacrifice comfort for fashion, 40% said yes, up 3.7% from 1998. (Cottoninc 2000). 4.3The impact of Ideal body image on consumers: In todays consumers society where womens bodies are frequently used to sell products, the ultimate commodity has become the female ideal body image. (Orbach, 1993). Since the 1960s the ideal body for women bodies has become lighter while real bodies have been getting heavier (Garneret al 1980). This has resulted in a bigger difference between the real and the ideal (Benson,1997). As popular models and actress represent current female ideals it is necessary to examine their depictions in the media (Wiseman et a, 1990). Today a lot of consumers are overwhelmed because of media. The effects that advertisements have on the consumers have changed everything from their fashion to their lifestyle in the society. Circulated as the norm, notions about the ideal are culturally specific trends that become mistaken for reality (Gorgan, 1999). The concept of an ideal body is given to us by the society of the world of today. The ideal now dictates a slim- hard – toned body (Benson, 1997). this perfect female body would be between five foot five and five foot eight, long legged, tanned and vigours looking (p.39 Coward, 1984). The media has drilled into the minds of people about the ideal body as being thin, tall and looking good to the society. With links to neurobiology, ideals are viewed as in-built responses guiding men and women in how they want to look and how they want others to look (Anderson, 2000). Overweight people are discriminated against in a culture that is unforgiving and judgmental towards fat people (Anderson, 2000). An ideal body for women has to perfect without any flaws. Achieving the ideal body will take time and money, where people are willing to spend these days. There are people in the society will go all the way out to look perfect and get their ideal body shape, even if the person has to go through many cosmetic surgery. In advertising technology has over taken, today every celebrities and super models have their photo shoot airbrushed before come out in magazines. Many of the images seen are artificially constructed using modern photographic techniques and air brushing (Coward, 1984). Although consumers know that these images are modified to look nice, they still opt for cosmetic surgery. Among other proposals are for success rates to be included on cosmetic surgery adverts and for local sports centres to be made more female friendly by being cleaner and safer (BBC, 2009). There are many celebrities have gone through many cosmetic surgeries and these consumers think this is the ideal body image and start to admired. Airbrushing should be banned in advertisements aimed at children to tackle body image pressure, say the Liberal Democrats. (BBC, 2009). President Douglas McGeorge has said he was particularly concerned about younger vulnerable readers of magazines who are being targeted very heavily (BBC, 2009) Although it is true that women may be entrapped in this system if beauty, the potential to change society and resist cultural pressure is negligible (Bordo, 1997). Smith (1990) believes that women should actively seek to achieve the ideal body in a form of femininity, body dissatisfaction is positive. He also argued that does not take in account the negative consequences of body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and eating disorders. This also brings in the male to be more dominated and stronger than compared to women, where women are pressured to be thin and weak. The view also ignores the role of the fashion industry, which is said to dictate the ideal (Grogan, 1999). When a study was conducted on teenage boys (Huenemann et al, 1966) found that more than half of the response wanted bigger biceps, bigger chest and bigger shoulder. This should that the even male are now getting conscious about their body image and when it is looked back , the media started about in women and then now in men. A recent study says that cosmetic surgery is increasing rapidly in men. It has also been suggested that male dissatisfaction is more pronounced in older men (Anderson, 2000). Although men have different perspective of body image when compared to women. As women are objectified for the active male gaze, they become objects of desire and all emphasis is place on their bodies. (Mulvey, 1980). 36% women seriously consider plastic surgery cause theyre unhappy with the way they look. 90% of women said their bodies made them feel down and they think about it everyday. 50% of school girls say they are on a diet (BBC, 2001). The focus on womens appearance has got out of hand no-one really has perfect skin, perfect hair and a perfect figure, but women and young girls increasingly feel that nothing less than perfect will do.(BBC,2009). Body image is a persons subjective evaluation of what it means to them to have that body within their culture (Grogan, 1999). 4.3 Effect of celebrity advertising on consumers and society: Tellis, (1998) defined advertising as communication a firms offer to customers by paid media or space. There is no doubt that advertising is a formative influenced within modern Western culture (Pollay, 1986). According to recent research statistics, the number of celebrity advertisements has doubled in the past ten years. (Brandchannel ,2006). There is now little dispute that the content of commercial television is primarily a vehicle to deliver audiences to advertise to advertisers and that glossy magazines serve that same purpose (p.75, Giles, 2003). Studies show that we are significantly more dissatisfied with our own appearance after being shown TV ads featuring exceptionally slim and beautiful people. (BBC, 2001). The effect that advertising has on the consumers of today is very big impact. Studies have also shown that women who read fashion magazines are more likely to have poor body image and suffer from eating disorders (Harrison and Cantor, 1997). By becoming a reference point against which comparisons are made, fashion adverts can greatly effect men and womens body esteem (Grogan, 1999). When a survey conducted by Glamour magazine (1984) found that 75% of women taught that they were fat. The advertisement is based on the marketing strategy of the company, when there is a marketing outcome its generally changing the behaviour of the consumers. The process are classified as cognitive that are know as consumers attitude (Tellis, 2004). According to Foxall (1998) consumers attitude is recognised as a crucial link between the consumers thinks about the products and advertisements and what they buy in the market place. Aker et al (1994) suggested that the attitude concept is an important factor to advertising Management. The attitude of the consumers in one of the important factor for a company to plan their marketing strategy, and to find out the consumers attitude can be done through advertisements. The distortions are characteristic of anorexia and bulimia are some times literally and concretely evident in fashion advertising (p.134, Gordon, 2000). First, studying the advertising efficiency on market outcome is mainly for accountability (Tellis, 2004). Few advertisements depict mundane levels of attractiveness and instead exclusively star the overwhelming handsome and beautiful (Patzer, 1985). It is such models that become icons and set the ideals to which people try to adhere (Ibanga, 2002). As the fashion industry is said to represent the true ideal of beauty models create the standard to which people are to meet (Winkler, 1994). The task of the advertisers is to favourably dispose viewers to his product, his means, by and large, to show a sparkling version of that product in the context of glamorous events. The implication is that if you buy the one, you are on the way to realizing the other- and you should want to (p.26, Goffman, 1979) Fashion has become a global business since the 1960s to dress to have success and the power of the brand has become more significant in the past few years. The fashion advertisings has become a very powerful and a multi-pound business, as the brands have become more of a social symbol in the society of today. the survey found that online advertising could extend the reach of an ad by about 10% and increase brand awareness by around 6% (BBC,2003) Fashion plays a very major part of peoples lives. As models become role models, consumers are increasingly growing up with feelings of complete inadequacy attractive people are repeatedly shown in adverts on a daily basis (Body Image, 1998). In fashion adverts directed at both men and women the consumers is seduced, dazzled and offered a visual feast with the central piece, the object of desire being the model (Winkler, 1994). When a study was conducted by Garner (1997) among men and women how fashion models influenced their feelings about th eir appearance, 27% of women said that the always or more often compared themselves to models in magazines and 28% said that they study the shape of the models. Modelling came to epitomise dominant characteristics of western femininity : the importance of appearance; fetishisation of the body; manipulation and moulding of the body; the discipline and labour associated with beauty and body maintenance; the equation of youth with femininity lifestyles (p.70 Craik, 1993). The Advertising Standards Authority said they received only a small handful of complaints on the issue. (BBC, 2009) In advertising magazines is one of the most important media to fashion to advertise their product, this results to a heavy use of magazine among the female consumers. The same applies to reading fashion magazines. Experiments show that magazine photographs of super-thin models produce depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity and body-dissatisfaction. (BBC, 2001). The volume of content is growing and it is trapping young people in particular, into unhealthy obsessions about their own bodies (BBC, 2008). The fashion industry works in this way by using adverts that imply that by purchasing the brand the consumer will be buying the social esteem and image of model (Anderson, 2000). Thousands and billions of dollars came to ride on the common determination that these women were the most beautiful and fashionable in the world. It was a conspiracy bent on harnessing them to purely commercials needs (p.149, Howell, 2000) President Douglas McGeorge has said he was particularly concerned about younger vulnerable readers of magazines who are being targeted very heavily (BBC, 2009). Men and women increasingly get their ideas of what they should look like from the imagery they see in the media (BBC, 2008). Highly attractive models act only to perpetuate such views, lowering satisfaction among viewers. (Grogan, 1999). WHERE WOMEN GET THEIR CLOTHING IDEAS: 1999 1998 +/- pts. Already Own and Like 52.7% 50.4% -2.3 Store Displays 47.6% 44.3% -3.3 People I See Regularly 36.1% 38.6% +2.5 Catalogs 35.4% 36.3% +0.9 Family Members 23.7% 20.1% -3.6 Commercials/Ads 28.8% 25.6% -3.2 Fashion Magazines 23.2% 31.9% +8.7 Celebrities 10.0% 14.9% +4.9 Salespeople in Stores 12.4% 13.7% +1.3 Looking at the table above shows a clear view of what people look up to in terms of fashion in the year 2000. The highest in the table is the fashion magazines and then come the celebrities. This gives a very clear view that most of the consumers around the world follow the advertisement to get their fashion sense and these days it has a big effect on the society and their personality. According to Hall-Duncan (1979) claims that the content of fashion advertisements, its just not about clothes but also about the image that brings out the attitude of the person. Therefore in a sense it is both the cause and effect (Patzer, 1985). Thompson et al claims that a significant number of women and girls are exposed to print media. Fashion and beauty magazine availability is immense in society today (Gordon). †¦womens beauty and fashion magazines, which may be among the most influential media formats in perpetuating and reinforcing the socio-cultural preference for thinness and in creating a sense of dissatisfaction with ones own body ( p.49, Harrison and Cantor, 1997). In the society most of the people are influenced by the advertisements. This influence is not directly applicable to most endorsement advertising because there is very little interaction between the endorser and the consumer in the communication process (Kamins, 1989). Followers of socio-cultural theories have accused womens magazines of being propaganda for the desirability if the thin ideal (Wolf, 1990). The medias images and messages become what they see as a soothing voice in a storm of conflict, confrontation and confusion (p.60, Thomsen et al, 2001). By the first decade of the twentieth century, the fashion models of Paris had already established a standard of extreme thinness (Gordon, 2000). Vogue employee wrote that the figure of the time was straighter with less of a bust and hips, more waist and long lean legs (Steele, 1985). The classic and most widely utilized method is the paid-for media advertisement mostly found in fashion magazines and on television. (Brandchannel, 2006). In receiving messages from parents, peers, mass media and other outlets, young people undergo a process of socialization in which they learn how to be consumers in the marketplace. (Lear et al, 2009). The presence and presentation of celebrity role models in pre-adolescent magazines, as well as details regarding the kinds of activities the celebrity participates in, may powerfully affect how girls view their role in todays society (Fabrianesi et al , 2008). 4.4 Celebritys endorsements: Any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement (McCracken, 1989). Aaker et al (1997) says that An endorser is a source of the information in the advertisements, which plays an important role in persuasive communication. Celebritys endorsements gives out an image that you move a step closer to the idols that the consumers admire by just buying one piece of garment. Celebrity endorsement transfers the personality and status of the celebrity as successful, wealthy, and distinctive directly to the brand. (brandchann