Sunday, May 24, 2020

Moon Landing Conspiracy And Its Effects On The World Essay

Moon Landing Conspiracy The United States and Mankind have gone on to do many amazing feats that were once though impossible. However, nothing comes to be quite as amazing as the Apollo 11 mission that landed the first men on the surface of the moon. At the time this act caused widespread celebration, and cheer. Over the years some people started to doubt the legitimacy of what occurred on that day back in 1969. These people came on to form the basis of the moon landing conspiracy theory. A theory that states that the United States never landed on the moon and the United States faked the whole thing in order to say they won the space race against the Soviet Union and increase moral during the time of the Cold war. Some of the core arguments that form the Moon landing Hoax conspiracy are that the mission would have been too dangerous with the technology we had at the time. They disregard any footage from the event, believing that NASA and the US government created a fake set in an undisclosed location and us ed special effects to make the footage seem more believable. All of the claims made by these hoax believers can be refuted with science and common sense, and that is what this paper sets out to do. The Apollo missions were huge efforts that required thousands of scientists, workers and contractors to come together. So how is it that thousands of people can come together to create what was a fake mission without one person coming forward and leaking the fact that all ofShow MoreRelatedMoon Landing Conspiracy807 Words   |  4 PagesScientific Facts for Moon Landing Conspiracy Theorists: An Essay on the Apollo 11 Conspiracies Tatiana Odishoo Ms. Betances, English 1 Pre-IB Global Issue Research Paper June1, 2011 Odishoo, Tatiana Ms. Betances/ English 1 Pre-IB Per.5 Global Issue Draft 20 May 2011 Scientific Facts for Moon Landing Conspiracy Theorists People around the globe are familiar with the triumphant words, â€Å"One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.† However, nearly 20% (Russo) believe they wereRead MoreMoon Landing Exploratory Essay1029 Words   |  5 PagesMoon Landing 1969 â€Å"Ignition sequence starts, three, two, one, all engine running, zero, lift off.† On July 16th 9:32 a.m., Apollo 11 was successfully launched as millions watched. Indeed, the lunar mission of the Apollo 11 was a new break through in the field of space exploration. Soon after, however, many controversies were raised on the authenticity of this event. Many critics of the lunar landing believe that this event was a hoax perpetuated to deceive the society. The debate, whether the moonRead MoreMoon Landing : Conspiracy Or Reality?1461 Words   |  6 PagesMoon Landing: Conspiracy or Reality? It wasn t until I really sat down and thought about it that I realized the moon landing was questionable. As a kid I always thought it would be amazing to be an astronaut so the thought that maybe there is no real astronauts at all had me concerned. On July 20th 1969, the Apollo 11 with astronaut Neil Armstrong and his crew, guided by thousands of NASA technicians, supposedly landed in the surface of the moon. This landing at its time was considered the mostRead MoreConspiracy Theories: Moon Landing Essay1292 Words   |  6 PagesConspiracy theories have been around since the beginning of time. When NASA sent the first landed on the moon, there are people who believed that NASA faked the moon landings. Men, such as Bill Kaysing, the Flat Earth Society, and Davie Groves, and Bart Sibrel, have written books, delivered lectures, and made videos about why they believed NASA faked the moon landings. Based on their observations which include no stars in their pictures, NASAs drive to bea t the Russians to the moon, and a way toRead MoreThe Discovery Of The Amazing Apollo 11 Feat1528 Words   |  7 PagesHistory or Hoax? â€Å"That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.† Or was it? For decades skeptics have been conjuring up hundreds of theories to try and prove that on July 20, 1969, man did in fact, not step foot on the surface of the moon. Could what is perhaps the United States’ greatest individual achievement be nothing but some Hollywood antics? Disbelievers of the amazing Apollo 11 feat have been voicing their opinion on the topic ever since the original photos and videos were publiclyRead MoreMoon Landing Hoax Essay2276 Words   |  10 PagesMoon Landing Hoax John F. Kennedy once said, No nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space...We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard†. The main motive for this quote was to ensure that the United States wanted to beat out the Soviets in the space race. Ever since the Soviets tried to advance on the moon, the United States wanted to be the first successfulRead MoreApollo Moon Landings..Are They Real or a Myth?2099 Words   |  9 Pagesrace to the moon had begun. In 1963, President John F. Kennedy made a speech saying We will go to the moon in this decade amongst other things, not because they are easy but because they are hard. After he was assassinated, NASA decided to pursue his plan and in 1967 the Apollo program began. In 1969, NASA landed Apollo 11 on the moon and the race was finally over. This was a major leap not only for Americans, but also for mankind. Videos and photos that were taken on the moon were shown toRead MoreThe Moon, Has Anyone Yet For Arrive? Essay1585 Words   |  7 PagesThe Moon, Has Anyone Yet to Arrive? On the twentieth of June in the year of 1969, the world watched as Neil Armstrong, Edwin â€Å"Buzz† Aldrin, and Michael Collins completely obliterated the original ideas of what the human race thought was possible and impossible during their expedition to the moon. Apollo 11 could have undoubtedly been the most monumental and extraordinary operation to have happened in history. However, with the abundant amount of unanswered questions and failure to provide furtherRead MoreThe World Of The Space Race1887 Words   |  8 PagesOn October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first satellite into space called, â€Å"Sputnik†. It was the start of one of the biggest races in the world called â€Å"The Space Race†. But it isn’t the start of the race that is questionable but the very end. On July 19, 1969 the United States supposedly landed 3 men on the moon. More than a billion people around the globe watched this event occur on their television sets as Neil Armstrong said â€Å"That’s one small step for man, and one giant leap for mankindRead MoreScript For Us Soviet Space Race Presentation1551 Words   |  7 Pageswhy Americans have never lost and will never lose a war. Because the very thought of losing is hateful to Americans† – This quote from the 1970 biopic of General George Patton illustrates the worldview of Americans during and immediately following World War II. When the new battle of the Cold War began, the Soviet Union became our new enemy, to be absolutely and utterly defeated by any means necessary. Not only was each advancement by the U.S. a victory, but each one by the USSR was implicitly a failure

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

A Simple Guide to Global Climate Change

A discussion of global climate change, also called global warming, can get very complicated very quickly. Fortunately, it can be explained rather simply. Here are the basics you need to know about climate change: Warmer Land and Sea The climate has warmed and cooled many times during Earth’s geological history, over millions of years. However, the global increase in mean temperature we have observed in the last decades has been both unusually rapid and quite large. It translates to warmer  air  temperatures and warmer sea water almost everywhere on Earth. Less Ice, LessSnow This increase in temperatures has led to increased melting of most of the world’s glaciers. In addition, the thick  Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets are losing volume, and sea ice covers an increasingly small portion of the Arctic while also getting thinner. The winter snow cover in most areas of the U.S. is thinner and does not last as long over the winter. Sea levels are rising, both because of the melting ice, and because warmer water expands and takes up more space. Less Predictable Weather While the word climate refers to long-term statistics on many aspects of temperature and precipitation, weather is a more immediate phenomenon, and is what we feel outside everyday. Global climate change is transforming our experience of weather events in different ways depending on where we live. Common changes include more frequent heavy rain events, regular winter thaws, or persistent droughts. All About the Greenhouse Effect Human activities release in the atmosphere many gases that create a greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases hold back the sun’s energy that had been reflected by Earth’s surface. This heat is then redirected towards the ground, increasing temperatures. Most of the observed warming can be attributed to these gases. How Are Greenhouse Gas Produced? The most important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide and methane. They are released when we extract, process, and burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas for electricity, manufacturing, and transportation. These gases are also produced during industrial activities, when we clear land for housing and farming, and during some agricultural activities. Are Sun Cycles to Blame? The Earth’s surface temperature rises and falls with slight changes during natural sun cycles. However, these solar cycles and the changes they produce are well understood and much less significant than those driven by greenhouse gases. Global Warming Consequences The consequences of global warming include more frequent coastal flooding, heat waves, extreme precipitation events, food insecurity, and urban vulnerability. The global warming consequences are being felt (and will be felt) differently in different parts of the world. Global climate change often affects more those who do not have the economic means to develop ways to adapt to the changes. Of course, climate change affect not only humans but the rest of the living world as well.   Global warming has few positive consequences. Gains in agricultural production, often cited as positive, are easily offset by increases in pest problems (including invasive species), droughts, and severe weather events. We can respond by mitigating global warming, which is to reduce it by curbing greenhouse gas emissions. We can also capture carbon dioxide, the most abundant greenhouse gas, out of the atmosphere and store it safely on earth. We can, in addition, adapt by investing in infrastructure, transportation, and agriculture in order to continue living with the inevitable changes brought by global warming.    What Can You Do? Most importantly, reduce your greenhouse gas emissions, whether you contribute as an individual or as a business owner.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Public Service Policy and Strategy Business Essay Free Essays

string(74) " is a balance between the two types of forces, no change will take place\." Abstract Organisations change in various ways which means that they become different. This could happen as a result of becoming a larger entity or by changing from a private to a public company. Change could also take place as a result of becoming â€Å"more customer or marketing focused as opposed to production orientated† (The Times, 2012, p. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Service Policy and Strategy Business Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1) or by changing the scope of its business activities. These are just some of the changes that may occur within an organisation and could lead to either a positive or negative outcome. Whilst change is inevitable, it is important that Public Service Organisations’ (PSO) are able to deal with any challenges they face. This is because, PSO’s are in a position of trust as they provide services to the public and so are owned and controlled by the government. Hence, it is therefore vital that PSO’s fully understand the public sector and are prepared for new changes. This could be achieved by ensuring that there is a need for change and thereby planning for it; by building internal support systems and by overcoming resistance by making sure that there is top management support and commitment (Sergio and Rainey, 2006: 168). Provided that these factors are taken into consideration, a trusting environment will be created and PSO’s will be equipped for any transit ions that take place. The main changes that are likely to take place within a PSO include: services design; structural alterations, management or administration of PSO’s, and changes to the skills that are necessary to manage PSO’s. Understanding the process of transformation and change in PSO’s are thereby key elements of a manager’s role. There are two kinds of strategies for managing change, these are planned and emergency, yet how these strategies are utilised will depend on the type of change taking place. Introduction The current scenario of the British Red Cross (BRC) will be explained in this report followed by an assessment as to whether change within the BRC is in fact needed. A new strategic direction will also be introduced which will contain the BRC’s main objective which is to; â€Å"help people in crisis in the UK and all over the world† (BRC, 2012: 1). This will be done by firstly introducing the BRC and putting forward a change situation. The force field analysis evaluating drivers and resisters of the change will then be explained followed by an overview of Mintzberg’s concept of an emergent strategy. Once this has been done, an action plan which demonstrates how the change shall happen will then be constructed, followed by a conclusion and overall summary of the reports main findings. Main Body Section 1: Introduction to the BRC and change proposal 1.1 Organization background (BRC): The British Red Cross (BRC) is a UK society, which is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement that aims to provide aid to those in crisis. The BRC helps those within and outside of the UK and operates a non-discriminatory policy. The main objective of the BRC is to provide assistance to people in crisis by conforming to the seven fundamental principles which are: Humanity Impartiality Neutrality Voluntary Service Unity Universality Independence In addition to these principles, the BRC strives to be compassionate, inclusive, dynamic and courageous (BRC, 2011c: 1) and is recognised as one of the main voluntary aid societies within the UK. The BRC undertakes a number of different activities annually so that individuals can be provided with the help that they need. In 2011 the BRC launched seven emergency appeals to help people around the world recover from famine, flooding, earthquakes and conflict, raising 21.6 million; helped 75,000 people in Haiti recover their livelihoods; responded to 4,200 emergency call outs in the UK; loaned out 75,000 wheelchairs; and helped 35,000 refugees and asylum seekers adapt to life in the UK (BRC, 2011b: 1-27). As the BRC is a charity, nonetheless, much of the funding comes from voluntary public contributions and whilst personal contributions are highly important so are corporate contributions since the BRC would not be able to function effectively without such aid. 1.2 Analyzing the change situation: After reviewing both the internal and external environment of the BRC, it is revealed that the BRC needs to raise greater awareness about overseas emergency aid. This is because, after undertaking various research activities, it was found that â€Å"almost three in four Britons feel that they are not well informed about overseas emergency aid issues† (BRC, 2011c: 1). In accordance with this, it is vital that changes to the ways in which the BRC operates are made so that a greater awareness of overseas aid can be achieved. Because the BRC operates on public funding, it is necessary for all individuals to be made fully aware of the different areas of the aid system. This could be attained through the formation of an executive organisation dealing primarily with aid awareness. The public would thus be provided with greater confidence when donating to the BRC as they would be fully aware of how their aid is being utilized. Consequently, the main objective of this new strategic dir ection is to prevent corruption and organisational incompetence whilst promoting an awareness of emergency aid. In realising this direction, the BRC’s current business strategy would need to be altered in order to approach the public in developed countries and provide them with an insight into the ways underdeveloped countries are being supported. This would certainly encourage further aid and would evidently lead to the growth of the BRC. Section 2 Force field analysis evaluating drivers and resisters of the change There are a number of different factors which drive change within any organisation, yet Lewin (1951) identified four different forces in his force field analysis. These are; forces for change; forces resisting change; driving forces; and restraining forces These forces are used in change management and help to understand most change processes in any organisation. If there is a balance between the two types of forces, no change will take place. You read "Public Service Policy and Strategy Business Essay" in category "Essay examples" However, if the driving force exceeds the restraining force then changes will be made. Accordingly, the total drivers and resisters first need to be identified. Once this has been done, an appropriate score from 0-9 then needs to be assigned to the force. Based on the total score of all the drivers and resisters, it is determined whether implementation of change would be successful or not. Below is the representation of influencer drivers and resisters of the proposed change situation for the BRC. Forces FOR change Forces AGAINST change Need to raise awareness about overseas emergency aid 8 Complex issues may be raised 5 Desire to increase voluntary donations 7 BRC’s current strategies are workable 6 Need to understand how aid is being utilised 8 Costs are reduced 5 Possibility of increased public donations 7 Rational resistance of change 3 30TOTAL19 2.1 Drivers of change: Need to raise awareness about overseas emergency aid – This force is imperative in preventing corrupt practices from taking place, yet the only way the public can be assured that this is being achieved is through improved public understanding as to how the BRC’s aid is being spent. At present, the public are unsure as to why developing countries remain underdeveloped when a significant amount of aid is being transferred to these countries each year. However, as noted by Akande (2001, p. 27); â€Å"the sums concerned, though large, can do little to offset the far greater imbalances in the world economic order where raw commodities exported from developing countries have lost more than 50% of their trade value in the last 15 years.† Furthermore, whilst individuals and organisations provide a lot of aid to the BRC, a substantial amount of this is paid to the bank in interest. Furthermore, debt servicing payments are also paid to the World Bank, which means that dev eloping countries are left with very little to establish their own economies. This appears somewhat absurd and it is unsurprising why there is a great reluctance to provide aid to underdeveloped countries because of this. Consequently, provided that the BRC can demonstrate exactly how their particular aid is utilised, it is likely that further investments will be made. This is because, as stressed by Aid Info (2008; p. 1); â€Å"Organisations and governments are most effective when they can be held accountable to those they serve, in this instance, communities receiving aid.† Therefore, unless aid transparency is ascertained, the growth of the BRC will be affected. This force scores 8 as it is given high consideration for effective aid utilization within the UK. Desire to increase voluntary donations – Because the BRC operates on voluntary donations, it is vital that these can be increased which is likely to be attained through aid transparency. This force scores 7 from this too has a significant impact upon the drive for change. Need to understand how aid is being utilised – If the public understand how their donations will be utilised it is likely that they will donate a lot more. As such, better awareness and utilisation is required. This force impacts deeply and thus scores 8 to demonstrate the significance of aid utilization maximization. Possibilities of increased public donations – It is likely that there would be an increased level of public donations if the public were fully aware of how their contributions were being spent. Essentially, it is important that this scores 7 since the value of the chain is clearly determined by this. 2.2 Resisters of change: Complex issues may be raised – Greater accountability may cause many problems for the BRC and the internal environment may be significantly affected as a result. This force scores 5 to illustrate its impact. BRC’s current strategies are workable – Because of the success in which the BRC has had so far, it could be said that changes to aid awareness would be detrimental and that aid data would still only be partially available. This change scores 6 in order to reflect the concern surrounding this issue. Costs are reduced: Because of the costs that would be incurred from generating awareness, it is likely that the amount of net aid will be reduced which would have a damaging effect to the value of the BRC. It therefore scores 5. Rational resistance of change: In justifying the need for this change, a determination as to whether aid awareness is really necessary needs to be made. Nevertheless, because rational resistance is easily overcome it scores a low 3 as the impact of this is minimal. After quantifying the numbers of drivers and resisters with their degree of influence it is evident that there will be more drivers than resisters of this particular change. Accordingly, the total score of drivers is 30, whilst the total score of resistors is 19. As a result, it is manifest that the change to be made will be more likely to succeed since aid awareness is likely to have a positive impact on the performance of the BRC. Section 3: Mintzberg’s concept of an emergent strategy for proposed change in the BRC 3.1 Understanding Mintzberg’s emergent strategy: An emergent strategy is one that emerges over time as unexpected changes in the environment collide with intentions. Essentially, this means that the intended strategy of an organisation eventually changes in accordance with what actually works in practice (Moore, 2011, p. 1). Thus, according to Mintzberg (1985, p. 257); â€Å"strategies are largely emergent within organisations and not simply predictable outcomes of formal hierarchical plans.† Consequently, it is thus believed by Mintzberg (1994) that the management of any organisation should therefore adopt a more flexible approach when it comes to strategic planning since the original objectives will undoubtedly be subject to change. In accordance with this emergent strategy, it is thereby important that the strategic plan for BRC includes ways to reduce the resisters of change. This will be done in accordance with the BRC’s best practice. 3.2 Constructing emergent strategy to implement change in the BRC: An emergent strategy can be created by following these steps; (Scott, 2006, pp. 6-7). Step 1 – Identify and map out any assumptions and risks of the BRC’s strategy; Step 2 – Identify and prioritise those assumptions and risks in order to learn more about them so that any risks can be dealt with accordingly; Step 3 – Design and execute knowledge building exercises in order to build smart experiments and risk mitigation strategies; Step 4 – Absorb and redirect based on the results of the experiments. By putting these steps into practice, BRC will be able to adjust to any new ideas and deal with any challenges they may face according. This will ultimately increase the chances of this new change succeeding. Step 1 – Identify and map out any assumptions and risks in of the BRC’s strategy Because change within any organisation lead creates a certain degree of uncertainty, it is important to carefully review all parts of an emergent strategy, whether these are positive or negative. Since the BRC aims to provide help and assistance to those in crisis around the world, it is evident that the change relating to aid transparency will not have much of a damaging effect. However, there will be some concern relating to the case flow of the BRC as the costs incurred may have a negative impact on this. Nevertheless, if this change leads to an increase in donations, the dent in the cash flow can be overcome. Consequently, the change in this strategy is proposed to change the views on donating and provide those willing to donate with a deeper understanding of how aid is being utilised. This will prevent corrupt practices from being employed and the utilization of aid will be maximised. Step 2 – Identify and prioritise those assumptions and risks in order to learn more about them so that any risks can be dealt with accordingly Whilst the internal and external environment of the BRC will be affected by this change, it is important to prioritise the assumptions and risks by considering the impact a wrong assumption would have on the BRC and determining how any risks can in fact be overcome. It also needs to be considered whether the assumptions are certain because even the slightest doubt can significantly affect the overall strategy of the BRC. Consideration of how further assumptions can be learnt also needs to be taken into account so that costs of running further experiments and the amount of time this will take can be established. Step 3 – Design and execute knowledge building exercises in order to build smart experiments and risk mitigation strategies All good emergent strategies need experiments and risk mitigation strategies so that any uncertainties in the approach taken can be identified and dealt with early on. Experiments can consist of; partial experiments, which test one part of a strategy, and holistic experiments, which test the whole of the strategy. Step 4 – Absorb and redirect based on the results of the experiments This stage of the emergent strategy process consists of a knowledge building exercise. The BRC and its management will thus be required to re-assess the approach being undertaken and consider whether any new information should lead the management to; double down, continue exploring, re-vector or shelve (Scott, 2008, p. 9). Consequently, in order to construct the emergent strategy for change in the BRC pre-strategic planning and implementation is required. Section 4: Precise Action plan Objectives Actions Responsibilities Resources Deadlines Risks Mile stones Human Financial objectiveActionsResposibilitiesResourcesmeasuresRisksdeadlineMilestone Develop the BRC’s own team of executivesAction 1: Implement a task-expertise-person model of team effectiveness Action 2: Organise the entire system of operation leadership and responsibilities Action 3: Construct Executive Strategy Action 4: Develop an effective HR management systemManagers and employeesInformation Services, computerisation, resource centre and networkingCalculate the costs and allocate responsibilitiesCostly and Time ConsumingMarch 2013Analyse the executive’s current skills, knowledge and competencies and develop a training plan for the team of executives through the completion of a gap analysis. Raise awareness about overseas aid in order to increase voluntary donationsAction 1: Consider how aid should be effectively distributed Action 2: Raise current awareness about aid Action 3:Operative executivesQuestionnaires, Perceptions Survey, Networking and Resource CentresAs aboveNegative impact of PEST factorsMay 2013Interact with the public in order to determine current awareness Collect and Analyse Experimental DataAction 1: Evaluate current awareness Action 2: Consider the effects increased awareness would have on the organisation Action 3: Record current activities of aid awarenessEmployeesAs aboveAs aboveConsider the effects transparency will have on the BRCAugust 2013Analyse the data collected and reach a conclusion based on the findings. Use statistical methods to decide whether the change is worthwhile Finalise Emergent StrategyAction 1: Design and Execute Knowledge Building Exercises Action 2: Pre Strategic Planning Action 3: Redirect activities based on the findings Managers, Executors and Leadership TeamAs AboveReviewing Data, Generating Initiatives, Prioritising Activities, Writing the overall planConsider how the resistors of change can be overcomeDecember 2013Adjust to the new ideas and deal with any challenges in an appropriate manner Implement the ChangeAction 1: Raise awareness of overseas aid Action 2: Ensure the BRC’s activities are transparent Action 3: Provide the public with an overview as to how the resources are being usedManagers, Executors and Leadership TeamComputer Systems, Internet, VolunteersImplement the PlanIf the outcomes are negative, re-direct the strategy and start againMarch 2014Review the emergent strategy and make changes where necessary Section 5: Concluding Remarks Many organisations are coming to the realisation that change is to be expected, which is why it is important that effective strategies are in place that will help to deal with such changes and ensure that only positive outcomes are produced. Whilst the introduction of significant changes can be confusing and frustrating leading to a decline in productivity, it is clear that such drawbacks can be overcome through the implementation of an effective emergent strategy. Accordingly, risks to productivity will thus be eradicated and the desired objectives of the change will be achieved. The BRC does not have an easy solution when it comes to making changes to the organisational structure of the business and instead ensures that any changes to be made are thoroughly thought out before they are implemented. Thus, in order for the BRC to reach its overall aim which is to help those in crisis, much emphasis is placed upon the need for transparency. The fundamental idea is to provide the public with a greater understanding of how the aid that is provided to the BRC is being utilised so that voluntary donations increase. In addition, it is likely that corrupt practices would be eradicated if the BRC were more transparent and although this would cost money; the advantages clearly outweigh the disadvantages. This report uses the force field analysis in order to identify the resistors and drivers of this proposed change and to consider whether the change should take place. Because the score for change is 30, whilst the score against change is 19, it is evident that the change will prove successful. Therefore, in order to achieve the desired outcome of the change, the emergent strategy of Mintzberg ought to be used. References Aid Info. (2008) Aid Transparency Movement, Better Information, Better Aid, [Online] Available: [04 January 2013]. Akande, W. (2001) Ireland: A Nation in Transition, iUniverse. BRC. (2011a) Seeds of Change Launched at Red Cross Event, [Online] Available: [22 December 2012]. BRC. (2011b) Trustees Report and Accounts, [Online] Available: [22 December 2012]. BRC. (2011c) Our Values, [Online] Available: [21 December 2012]. BRC. (2012) Donate Today, [Online] Available: [20 December 2012]. Moore, K. (2011) Porter or Mintzberg: Whose View of Strategy is the Most Relevant Today, Forbes, [Online] Available: [05 January 2013]. Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J. A. (1985) Of Strategies, Deliberate and Emergent, Wiley-Blackwell, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 6, no. 3. Mintzberg, H. (1994) The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconcieving Roles for Planning, Plans, Planners, Free Press: New York, Maxwell Macmillan. Scott, D A. (2006) Mastering the Emergent Strategy Process, Strategy and Innovation. Sergio, F. and Rainey, H. G. (2006) Managing Successful Organisational Change in the Public Sector, Public Administration Review, Volume 168, Issue 9. The Times. (2012) The Organisation and Change, Operations Theory, [Online] Available: [04 January 2013]. How to cite Public Service Policy and Strategy Business Essay, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Classical Neo Theories Of Economic Growth -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Classical Neo Theories Of Economic Growth? Answer: Introducation Economic growth refers to the increase in the capability of an economy in the production of goods and services from one time period to another. It is usually measured in the percentage rate of increase in the real or nominal terms of gross domestic product (GDP) (Kuznets 2016). There are two major branches of economics that explain the economic growth in two different angles. One of them is the Classical theory of economic growth. The pioneers of economics, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas R. Malthus and J. S. Mill provided the essence of economic growth, known as, classical theory of economic growth. As stated by North (2016), the theme of classical theory is that the growth of an economy depends on capital accumulation, increasing returns to scale and specialization. Adam Smith first proposed the idea of economic growth in his 1776 book, Wealth of Nations. He argued that there are several elements in the economy that can lead to increased growth. Those elements are: Markets playing important role in the determination of demand and supply Productivity of labor and its influence on per capita income Significant role of trade in enabling more specialization Increasing returns to scale, resulting in more specialization in the modern world (Rosen and Gayer 2014). The classical model was developed by Malthus and Ricardo. In this model, they assumed that the change in technology is constant and expansion in the inputs results in diminishing returns to scale. Malthus highlighted in his theory that, the worlds population would grow faster than the capacity to feed itself because he did not consider any technological improvement (Chakravarty 2017). Rosen and Gayer (2014) stated that according to the classical economists, one of the major features of a growing economy is the higher level of capital accumulation. This allows increase in the total output for the community by increasing the productivity of land and labor and increasing the allocation of available productive resources. Along with that, the total amount of profit is dependent on two factors, namely, total product of labor and wage level (Scully 2014). Thus, in turn it also depends on the marginal productivity of labor. The productivity of labor in turn depends on the capital stock and available techniques. The market wages could rise above the subsistence level in the short run and this would bring an increase in the population. However, in the long run, as the population growth increases, the wage reaches the subsistence level and then the growth in the population would stop. Hartwell (2017) pointed out that the surplus that is earned by the capitalists will be rein vested again in the production and the entire process will come to a stop when the diminishing returns set in the production process. Classical theory of economic growth In the above diagram, the line OW shows the subsistence level of wage, and TP1 is the total product curve. When the population level is at OM, the level of total product is OP. The per capita wage is MS, and surplus or profit is ST. At this stage, the capital formation starts and that results in increase in the demand for labor, leading to a rise in the wages, as the economy moves from T to B. With this movement, the level of working force increases and it shifts to the right, from OM to ON. Increase in population results in more amount of surplus and it is reinvested in the economy. The process will continue till it reaches the point E. With every step in the movement, the amount of surplus capital gets decreased. At E, there will be no capital or surplus, and output and wage become equal. It is a stationary situation where there will be no economic growth, and the population would remain stagnant at OV. TP2 represents the total product curve when there is another factor, that is te chnological factor and that increases the level of total product of the economy. According to the classical economists, even if there is technological factor, the economy would still reach the stagnation when there is no capital surplus (Keynes 2016). Neo-Classical Theory of Economic Growth The neo-classical theory of economic growth is established on the basis of the understanding that, growth in the output of an economy depends on the capital formation, labor and technology. According to this theory, an economy can achieve the state of equilibrium by changing the amount of labor and capital in the production function. In this theory, the role of technology on the production has been accepted. The neo-classical growth theory is a combination of the works of Solow, Meade, Tobin, Phelps, Johnson and Swan. They formed their theories on the basis of the neo-classical economists, Marshall, Wicksell and Pigou. The neo-classical theory is based on the assumptions that, The commodity and the factor markets have perfect competition, Factor payments are equal to the marginal revenue, The ratio between capital and quantity produced is variable, and There is full employment in the economy (Keynes 2016). As stated by McCombie and Thirlwall (2016), the major point of neo-classical theory of economic growth is the inclusion of technology along with the variable amount of labor and capital. It also puts emphasis on the event of capital formation and the related decisions of saving and investment, being one of the important determinants of economic growth (Higgins 2017). The model considers that the production function contains two factors, capital and labor and it also has an exogenously determined factor, that is, technology (Peet and Hartwick 2015). The production function is written as: Where Y is the total product, K is the capital, L is the unskilled labor and A is the level of technology. A change in the exogenously determined factor, that is, technology can shift the production function and thereby, changes the level of output (Yang and Ng 2015). In the following diagram, the effect of technology is shown by two labor productivity curve. Labor productivity shifts upwards when there is increase in the level of technology. Due to technological advancement, the economy moves from point A to point E, and the level of investment and savings increases. The labor productivity increases at this point as the capital per labor hour increases from k0 to k*. The basic concept, stated by Benera, Berik and Floro (2015), is that, technology leads to new opportunities for profit. Thus, savings and investment increases, real GDP per capita increases and the diminishing returns to the capital per labor hour reduce the real rate of interest. Neo-classical model of economic growth The economy starts at A and at this point, the real interest rate equals target rate of return. Technological advance pushes the economy upwards to E and the economy moves from E to B as there is an increase in the labor productivity due to technological advancement and increase in capital per labor hour. At point B, again the target return rate and real interest rate becomes equal and growth ends. Difference between the two theories (Using Institutional Analysis) There is a major difference between the two schools of thought in economics. The well known economists explained the concept of economic growth in two very distinct ways. The classical theory of economic growth was applicable to the societies during the 18th and 19th centuries, when production took place by using primitive ways. On the other hand, the neo-classical theory of economic growth was established in the 20th century when the technological revolution was taking place (Dopfer and Potts 2015). It is relevant till today. The classical economists believed in a free market or self regulating economy without any government intervention. They believed in optimal allocation of productive resources for optimum level of production. The neoclassical economists, on the other hand, believed that individuals in the society are working to maximize the utility and the organizations want to maximize profits with perfect information in the market. Hence, it can be said that, in the classical theory, the emphasis is put on the production of products and services with only two factors, labor and capital, while in the neoclassical theory, the actions of the individuals in the society and the decisions regarding savings and investment are considered as important factors determining the level of production and profit (Borner, Brunetti and Weder 2016). A major distinction between the two theories is the consideration of technological advancement in the production process. In the classical theory, the economists did not consider the technological factor and analyzed the growth process on the basis of labor and capital productivity only. However, technology plays an important role in the neoclassical theory. Technological advancement increases the total production, and thereby increasing the scope for capital accumulation. Hence, the productivity of labor increases shifting the labor productivity upwards. Thus, economic growth depends on labor productivity, capital productivity, savings, investment and technological progress (Dopfer and Potts 2015). There are some differences between the two theories, from the point of view of institutional analysis. The institutional analysis refers to the analysis of the structure and mechanisms of the institutions in an economy. This analysis deals with the functioning of the individuals and groups, constructing institutions and their effects on the economy (Powell et al. 2016). Using the institutional analysis, the difference between the two economic growth theories are as follows: Classical theory of economic growth Neo- Classical theory of economic growth Institutional structure is mechanical and impersonal (North 2016) Institutions form a social system The institutions mainly focus on the work and the economic needs of the labor or workers (Scully 2014). Institutions mainly focus on small groups within the organization as well as in the society and on the human and emotional qualities of the employees Organizations put emphasis on rationality and order Organizations put emphasis on the personal and social needs of the workers along with fulfilling the organizational objectives Organizational behavior originates from rules and regulations Organizational behavior originates from feelings, attitudes and sentiment (Lundahl and Wadensjo 2015) Authoritarian practices are used to accomplish the results (Lukacovic and Francis 2016) Democratic practices, recognition of human values and dignities and involvement of workers in decision making are important to accomplish the organizational goals. Dissatisfaction and work alienation arise in the institutions. Satisfied employees focus on increasing the productivity of the institutions. Thus, it can be said that, in the light of institutional approach, there are some important differences between the two theories. While in the classical theory, the institutions followed authoritarian practices to achieve the organizational goals, the institutions, under the neoclassical theory, followed a modern approach to deal with the organizational functions and making profits. Since, there is application of technology in the modern production process; hence, the institutions need to incorporate advanced technology along with the human values in the institutional activities. The classical school of thought focuses on the economic growth that results from the efficient and optimum allocation of productive resources in the economy. They did not consider the technological progress and the involvement of human decisions about the savings and investment. However, in the neoclassical theory, the economists incorporated the technological advancement and other human decisions that can cause major impact on the economy. The modern economies today follow the neoclassical theory of economic growth. The decisions regarding investments and savings as well as rapid technological progress determine the direction and magnitude of the economic growth. References Benera, L., Berik, G. and Floro, M., 2015.Gender, development and globalization: economics as if all people mattered. Routledge. Borner, S., Brunetti, A. and Weder, B., 2016.Political credibility and economic development. Springer. Chakravarty, S., 2017.Alternative approaches to a theory of economic growth: Marx, Marshall and Schumpeter. Orient Longman (1980). Dopfer, K. and Potts, J., 2015.The general theory of economic evolution. Routledge. Hartwell, R.M., 2017.The Industrial Revolution and economic growth(Vol. 4). Taylor Francis. Rosen, H. and Gayer, T., 2014.Public Finance. 10th ed. 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