Monday, September 30, 2019

Disciplining Style Differences of Divorced Parents Essay

Introduction Families come in all shapes and sizes. Some families have two parents in the home, others are ran by single parents, while others have stepmothers and stepfathers with children having biological and half-siblings. These dynamics are intriguing and often I have wondered how the parents in such families may differ in their parenting styles based on the relationship of the Mother and Father. In the traditional family, the Mother and Father are generally married and reside in the same household raising the children they have created together, while other families of divorced parents may have joint custody of their children and live in separate residences. I am curious to know how these parents operate, specifically in the area of discipline. Child Behavior tends to be greatly effected by a change in the family structure, such as divorce. Not only do children behave poorly in school after a divorce, but also there are studies that show High School drop out rates are significantly higher i n a single parent household than a home with dual parenting. This study will serve three purposes. The first is to describe the disciplinary practices of a divorced parents, studying the most common techniques used by the average divorced parent. Next, this study will explain the effectiveness of these techniques, examining the result of child behavior in each of the examples. Finally, this study will outline the most effective discipline techniques for divorced parents to avoid the behavioral problems that a divorce can bring upon a child. The most effective disciplinary techniques for divorced parents is to work together throughout the disciplinary practices, remaining consistent amongst both parents and delivering on punishments for incorrect behaviors. This ensures well-behaved children and increases the likelihood of educational success of their children. Problem Statement Children of divorced parents suffer with behavioral issues much more often than children from traditional family dynamics consisting of a two-parent households. Theses issues include small consequences such as bad behavior in the classroom and can be even more sever such as increased likelihood of high school dropouts. In fact, in a study reviewed by Green, K., of a group of students who came from a divorced family, only â€Å"about 60 percent received high†¨school diplomas† (Green, 2009). This is compared to 78.4% of students from a traditional household of two parents. Changes in parenting should be able to reduce these risks and there is no better way to change parenting styles other than researching the different styles of parenting and examining the most effective techniques. Divorced parents often lack a partnership and consistency that a dual parent household has, and so, in order to prevent negative consequences from poor child behavior, divorced parents need to work together, remain consistent, and hold their children accountable for their actions. The question this study hopes to answer is, how are divorced parents’ disciplinary actions different from traditional families, and what can they do to ensure their child’s success? Rationale Child behavior is so important since it is often said that past behavior is a good indicator of future behavior. â€Å"The empirical finding that childhood problem behavior is predictive of adult problem behavior has been documented in several longitudinal samples, regardless of time, place, sample characteristics, or specific measures of outcome† (Ensminger, 2006, p194). Children tend to behave more poorly when they are raised in a home of a divorced parent, so it is important to understand the approaches taken by these parents and assess their effectiveness in order to explain the best disciplinary techniques so that this behavior can be corrected early enough to eliminate the risks of behavioral issues in children. This study is meant to be more than just a description of parenting styles, but, also serve as a guide for divorced parents as well. Research Objectives This study will serve three purposes. The first will be to identify the most common disciplinary approaches amongst divorced parents and traditional families. Amongst these approaches, we will then determine the most effective of these approaches, which is the second objective. Finally, We will fulfill the third purpose, which is to understand the complications that divorce brings upon a parent in disciplining, and suggest helpful tips from the most effective parenting styles researched. When all is said and done, we would like to help single parents who are raising their children after a divorce understand the importance of good discipline practices, most commonly found in traditional families and avoiding any potential negative impacts of child behavior. Hypothesis My guess is that most divorced parents do not take the time to research the most effective parenting techniques, especially in the area of discipline. This can help them assess their current strategies and open their eyes to all new approaches with the most successful outcomes. I would guesstimate that most single parents lack discipline due to the fear of loosing the popularity contest they’re in with the ex-spouse and their children. This is unfortunate because they are actually doing more harm than good. A child that does not have discipline in the home can result in terrible consequences, both for the child as well for the society in which this child will live in, since links to criminality have already been established with child behavior and lack of discipline. I would predict that if divorced parents were to use effective discipline, such as, working together, remaining consistent and keeping their children accountable for their actions, then they would raise better-behaved children and increase the chance of a successful life for their children, much like their traditional family counterpart. Definition of Terms This paper will have several terms that will have several terms that will be defined in this portion and will be implemented throughout the study. The first term I wish to define is the term â€Å"traditional family†. A traditional family will be defined by a household in which the children live with both their mother and father and both are married. The next term defined is a divorced family, or a family in which the children’s parents have divorced and no longer live together. The term â€Å"children† will describe adolescents under 18 years of age. Another term is discipline, which we will define as any action taken by a parent to correct the bad behavior of their children. Finally, we will define Behavior as the actions and/or attitudes displayed by a child. Summary It is imperative that children be disciplined for displaying poor behavior. This can prevent such outcomes as high school dropouts and criminal activities, which is often the result of bad childhood behavior. Divorced families often lack discipline in the household, due to the absence of partnership amongst divorced parents and consistency in parenting, so, in order to prevent negative consequences of child behavior issues, divorced parents need to work together, remain consistent, and hold their children accountable for their actions. I predict that traditional families have a lot of differences in their disciplinary practices such as teamwork, consistency and accountability that is deficient in a divorced family, where the parents are separated in different residences. Much can be gained about researching effective disciplinary techniques, especially amongst divorced parents, well-disciplined children can increase the livelihood of their adult life and ensure a more promising futur e, which is everything a parent hopes for their children. References Ensminger, M. E. (2006). Childhood Behavior and Adult Criminality: Cluster Analysis in a Prospective Study of African Americans. DOI 10.1007/s10940-006-9008-9 Green, K. (2009). Your Child Your Divorce. School Drop-Out Rates Rise for Children of Divorce, Claims Study. Retrieved from: In Research from University of Alberta (as cited in Green, K. (2009). Your Child Your Divorce. School Drop-Out Rates Rise for Children of Divorce, Claims Study. Retrieved from:

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Effects of modern gadgets to high school students Essay

PREFACE PART ONE What is a Person? Chapter 1 Missing Persons Chapter 2 An Apocalypse of Self-Abdication Chapter 3 The Noosphere Is Just Another Name for Everyone‟s Inner Troll PART TWO What Will Money Be? Chapter 4 Digital Peasant Chic Chapter 5 The City Is Built to Music Chapter 6 The Lords of the Clouds Renounce Free Will in Order to Become Infinitely Lucky Chapter 7 The Prospects for Humanistic Cloud Economics Chapter 8 Three Possible Future Directions PART THREE The Unbearable Thinness of Flatness Chapter 9 Retropolis Chapter 10 Digital Creativity Eludes Flat Places Chapter 11 All Hail the Membrane PART FOUR Making The Best of Bits Chapter 12 I Am a Contrarian Loop Chapter 13 One Story of How Semantics Might Have Evolved PART FIVE Future Humors Chapter 14 Home at Last (My Love Affair with Bachelardian Neoteny) Acknowledgments Preface IT‟S EARLY in the twenty-first century, and that means that these words will mostly be read by nonpersons—automatons or numb mobs composed of people who are no longer acting as individuals. The words will be minced into atomized search-engine keywords within industrial cloud computing facilities located in remote, often secret locations around the world. They will be copied millions of times by algorithms designed to send an advertisement to some person somewhere who happens to resonate with some fragment of what I say. They will be scanned, rehashed, and misrepresented by crowds of quick and sloppy readers into wikis and automatically aggregated wireless text message streams. Reactions will repeatedly degenerate into mindless chains of anonymous insults and inarticulate controversies. Algorithms will find

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Communicate with Stakeholders Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Communicate with Stakeholders - Assignment Example "Workers today will need technological, educational and critical skills for efficient teamwork, effective communication and strategies so to develop a healthy working environment† (Schmidt et al., 1995). One can only have good job when he or she has sufficient knowledge of work, but unfortunately here is the United States more than half of the students leave their high school lacking the basic knowledge essential for jobs (Secretarys Commission, 1991). The real dilemma lies in the fact that neither academic nor vocational education train students with necessary skills that are needed for their post-secondary education or their high income employment (National Information Center, 1996b).  This highlights the need of student centered learning that is based on the willingness of the student to learn amalgamated with the modern technology. As we know that Student centered learning is a set of methodologies of teaching that primarily concentrates on the interest of the students, instead of those who are involved in the teaching processes like administrators and teachers. This technique has numerous ramifications for not only re-shaping the syllabus, but also to the content and the intuitiveness of courses. This system is paying attention on the interests, abilities, and learning styles of students and portraying the role of teachers as a facilitator of learning and is in contrast with the traditional educational system where learning is imparted forcefully irrespective of the student’s engrossment. We all are also well aware of the fact that student centered learning facilitates collaboration and customization in which educators work with their students and students also learn to manage team work. It opens the windows to critical thinking in which students learn the way of finding effective content and to distinguish between reliable and non-reliable sources. Student centered learning basically imparts

Friday, September 27, 2019

Abramoff case Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Abramoff case - Research Paper Example These political lobbyists offered gifts and campaign donations to legislators in return for the unfair legislative support. The scandal was brought to light following the federal investigations into the business as well as political dealings of Abramoff. Indian lobbying scandal was one of the major misdeeds of Abramoff and it was resulted from defrauding native Indian tribes of millions of dollars. As noted already, the scandal represented the bribing of government officials as well. From extensive FBI investigations, Abramoff found guilty of three felony counts including conspiracy, tax evasion, and fraud. The tax evasion charges were roughly amounted to $1.7 million whereas the loss of the defrauded tribes represented a figure of $66 million (US Senate, 2006). Abramoff was asked to cooperate with officials on the investigation of congressional corruption because he had bribed congressional representatives including Bob Ney of Ohio. The scandal also included the hiring of congressio nal staff with intent to influence their former employees. As Eliason (2009) points out, Neil Volz, the chief staff of Tom DeLay, was found guilty of offenses including fraud, conspiracy, and contravention of house rules and which in turn forced DeLay to relinquish his position as the chairperson of the house administration committee. It is apparent that the political scandal perpetrated by Abramoff had many ethical consequences. The parties involved in this scandal had ethical responsibilities toward the society and general public, and therefore the scandal resulted in an ethical downturn of the parties involved. The Abramoff scandal also represented the violation of societal values because ethics is an integral element determining acceptable behaviors in a society. To illustrate, Abramoff defrauded the native Indian tribes of millions of dollars through his lobbying activities, and from a societal perspective it is just equivalent to

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Why Scientific Management Has No Relevance Today Essay - 11

Why Scientific Management Has No Relevance Today - Essay Example The paper tells that scientific management is irrelevant in the current society because unlike in the past, workers are more intelligent today. This is because they know their values in the workplaces. Consequently, they consider any processes that seem to challenge their worth as self-deprecating. When scientific management was still relevant, employees were offered the fiscal rewards only. This is because workers valued economic rewards during that time. However, most organizations increase their productivity by controlling all factors in the  workplaces  as well as maintaining the social health and development of the workers in today’s organizations. Furthermore, this management approach is not applicable today because its principles are authoritarian. This is because they assumed that only managers were accountable for decision-making because organizations did not trust the employees’ competence in decision-making in the past. According to Taylor, the increase i n the organizations’ productivity relied on the divisions between the workers and experts or managers. Additionally, he also believed that managers should always direct the workers. This method negatively influences the workers’ motivation and satisfaction in the  workplaces. The modern organizations increase their productivity by involving all the organization’s participants including the employees in the decision-making process. This motivates the workers because it makes them feel worthy of the organization. Additionally, it makes them feel respected by the organizations. Such respected workers usually work to their highest potential because they become loyal to the organization. Moreover, the piece rate payment systems used in the scientific management is not effective today because organizations center on superiority rather than the capacity to increase the customers’ satisfaction and the organizations’ competency.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Does the term organizational culture infer that an organization has a Personal Statement

Does the term organizational culture infer that an organization has a healthy culture - Personal Statement Example The term organizational culture does not imply health. Instead, it implies any behavior by the workforce in the organization. These behaviors are mainly products of the organization history, market, the style of management, or type of employees working in the organization. Some organizations that have a negative history of poor management or handling of employees find it very hard to eradicate the negative cultures that erupted during these times (Alvesson 13). However, even when elements of these cultures are remaining, the organization cannot be said to be healthy. Therefore, an organization with a healthy culture is one that has been able to eliminate negative culture either through introducing change or replacing a generation of employees with new ones. Some of the positive cultures that makes the organization to be referred as healthy include; innovation, emphasis on outcome, emphasis on customers, teamwork, etc. However, these can be tarnished by negative cultures such as discr imination. Therefore, the top managers have a role of ensuring that the organization has a positive

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Fitmath in Afterschool and Why It Is Effective Dissertation

Fitmath in Afterschool and Why It Is Effective - Dissertation Example School time and various resources are frequently diverted from various types of physical Education and openings for physical action for example recess. (HRDC, 2001). The program Fitmath the kids, under goes numerous stages in which they study how to turn out to be fit both bodily and mentally, the significance of having well eating habits with nourishing foodstuff, and to maintain body in correct shape, additionally to thorough mathematical abilities. And it helps to accomplishing and learning maths with fun and pleasure. (Wenger). According to Nancy Protheroe in his article called, what does Good Math Instruction look like? Says that, it entails good teachers, effectual math surroundings, and a curriculum that is more than a mile broad and an inch deep. This research article points out that it takes more than a good trainer to teach math. According to MUCHA in his article says that, Mathematics subject has always been an essential constituent of person thought and culture, and the d evelopment of technology in current times has further enlarged its significance. Nowadays mathematics is a crucial partner in areas where once it played no particular role. (Mucha). Fit math is one of the most significant programs in schools in the 21st century. It connects healthy academics and eating. This program assists students in increasing self-assurance in their physical capability, in addition to enhancing familiarity, by way of expressions in the fields of physiology, anatomy, and mathematics. Fundamental fact acquisition is a significant part of building up higher-order math abilities. (Springer). On the other hand, getting learners with a history of academic rebelliousness to engage in various activities associated to acquisition of various skills can be difficult. (Lynn Arthur Steen 2010). According to Michelle Kulas in her acrtcile called, Need for After-School Exercise Programs says that, program related to after-school fitness build exercise fun for children. Dependi ng on the style of program, it will help the child to study a new sport or have the alternative to join in in a large variety of exercise activities. She also says that, because of this exercise program it will helps to develop health of the kids by being physically active at the same time as also playing with and cooperating with other kids in a supervised setting. Also After-School Exercise Programs will be capable to create new friends and may enjoy superior self-assurance and self-esteem. (Kulas, 2011) According to Sam Piha in his article called AFTERSCHOOL PROGRAMS: WHAT SHOULD WE EXPECT AND HOW SHOULD WE MEASURE SUCCESS says that, after school programs offer young people with the various types of learning practices and opportunities that may not be obtainable to kids in their homes or classrooms. And also they recommend young people opportunities to study new things and build up significant skills that are essential to achievement in school and in life. The article Effective M athematics Instruction says that, Mathematics instruction is an extremely complex procedure that tries to create abstract ideas more tangible, difficult thoughts comprehensible and multifaceted evils solvable. Visual depictions bring

Monday, September 23, 2019

Organic Farming in Saudi Arabia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Organic Farming in Saudi Arabia - Essay Example One of the most significant expositions of the aims and principles of organic farming is presented in the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements' (IFOAM) basic standards for production and processing (Anonymous, 68). "To create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems, which maximize reliance on farm-derived renewable resources and the management of ecological and biological processes and interactions, so as to provide acceptable levels of crop, livestock and human nutrition, protection from pests and diseases, and an appropriate return to the human and other resources employed". In some respects, this definition stands as the complete opposite to conventional productivist agriculture, which implies extensive use of artificial inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides designed to increase productivity in food production. Introduction, intensification and optimization... In some respects, this definition stands as the complete opposite to conventional productivist agriculture, which implies extensive use of artificial inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides designed to increase productivity in food production. Organic Farming in Saudi Arabia: A Proposal Goal Introduction, intensification and optimization of organic production, environmental protection and the promotion and supporting the access of Saudi organic products to local, regional and international markets. Purpose: The project has the specific purpose of the increased involvement of Saudi Arabia in promoting Organic Agriculture. The introduction could offer diverse benefits, such as income generation, natural resource conservation, food self-sufficiency and social development. Outputs & Major activities To achieve Output A. Output 1-Information about the current situation in the concerned countries regarding market and organic production of olives, dates, cotton, and medicinal and herbal plants is collected, and analyzed. Activities: Carrying out the information survey. Data Collection and analysis. Interpretation of results, conclusions and recommendations. B. Output 2-Organic Agriculture in selected sub-sectors (olive, date palm, and cotton, medicinal and herbal plants) in Saudi Arabia is strengthened. Activities: Setting- up new Information Centers (IC) / Focal points Equip with required information and technical literature. Collection and analysis of existing information. Development of individual work plans for each IC. Development of contacts with the local OA movements to promote OA in Saudi Arabia. C. Output 3- Participation and capacity in the structures and membership of

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Cost method november Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cost method november - Essay Example It is crucial for managers to comprehend the merits and demerits of the two systems to satisfy the needs of their business operations. The budget presented entails schedules that raise various concerns leading to the recommendation that the company should switch to the activity-based costing system of accounting. The first concern is the quarterly budget that in my opinion requires further subdivision to generate quarters. Mainly, cycling takes place in temperate weather conditions. Buying materials for bicycle production for the start of sales hikes demand therefore, requires the producer to incur a quarter before the demand. Another concern regards accounts that remain uncollectable. The master budget for the company is not specific it its cash budget line. It closely refers to the uncollectable receivables. Variable factors in this context emanate from economic features among them limited sponsorship and thus resulting in wrong accounts (Gazely & Lambert, 2006). From the budget, the company is setting aside a budget for 140 bikes inclusive of labour costs. It is appropriate to cut down on the level of production of extra parts in the inventory. The viability of any business can be measured by how the company effectively utilizes its resources while plummeting unnecessary costs hence Competition Bikes Inc. should strive to avert extra discretionary costs. The method of distributing manufacturing overhead by activity-based costing (ABC) to products is efficient compared to the traditional method of costing. Precisely, activity-based costing assigns the right percentage of resources to particular products. While monitoring and allocating organizational costs to products and objects, activity-based costing remains a more sophisticated and logical method as opposed to the traditional costing system (Bragg, 2001). It is possible to distribute

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms as Human Disease Markers Essay Example for Free

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms as Human Disease Markers Essay In using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to match subtle DNA changes with an individual’s susceptibility to a disease of interest, one can start by distinguishing the suspect DNA from a preset standard using the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). In this method, copies of extracted and purified DNA are made using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) before being cut up by preselected restriction endonucleases, and the resulting fragments subjected to electrophoresis. Once a suspect sequence in the fragments obtained is found, it can then be subjected to a sequencing technique that can pinpoint the nature of the SNP. One such method is Pyrosequencing, where a sequencing primer is prepended to the fragment under scrutiny and is mixed with a cocktail composed of a DNA polymerase, ATP sulfurylase, luciferase (the enzyme responsible for making luciferin in luminous animals glow), and apyrase, as well as luciferin and adenosine 5’-phosphosulfate (APS). Deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs, four in total, corresponding to the four DNA bases) are added, one by one, into the reaction mix. For each time a dNTP is added, the polymerase causes the incorporation of the dNTP into the strand at appropriate positions, if any are present, with the simultaneous release of pyrophosphate, in an amount that is equimolar to how much nucleotide was used in incorporation. The pyrophosphate reacts with the APS, catalyzed by ATP sulfurylase, to produce ATP which participates in the chemoluminescence reaction of luciferin and luciferase. The amount of visible light generated by the reaction is proportional to the amount of ATP generated, and this is recorded by a special camera and noted as a peak into what is called a Pyrogram. How much light is generated depends on how much dNTP was used up. Any unused dNTP and ATP present in the mix is degraded by the apyrase. The sequence of the fragment can then be read off from the peaks of the gradually being produced Pyrogram. Specially constructed software can then spot SNPs by comparing the Pyrogram of the fragment of interest with known Pyrograms. By using an â€Å"association study†, where people with the trait and a control group are compared with regards to the presence of â€Å"marker alleles†, or alleles that can be shown to be present only in people with the disease. SNPs are convenient for this purpose since SNPs are easily inheritable and occur usually more frequently in genes than the other possible variations. This is most useful for diseases that can be shown to be influenced by only a single gene, for association is difficult enough when done on a single gene. Accuracy in identification can be had by having the affected and the control be as closely related as possible, since differences that might be disease-related will be easier to spot. References: Ronagi, M. Elahi, E. (2002). Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms and mutations by Pyrosequencing. Comparative and Functional Genomics, 3(1), 51-56. Li, M., Boehnke, M., Abecasis, G. R. (2006). Efficient study designs for test of genetic association using sibship data and unrelated cases and controls, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 78, 778–792.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Importance Of Marketing In Todays World Marketing Essay

Importance Of Marketing In Todays World Marketing Essay Introduction: According to the American Marketing Association marketing is defined as activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large'(American Marketing Assocation, 2007). Drucker states the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous (American Marketing Association, 2007). By keeping the above definitions in view we can say that to identify customers needs and act accordingly to satisfy their needs is called marketing. The aim of this report is to develop an understanding of marketing concepts, use and apply it to Marks Spencer (MS) in order to understand the role and significance of marketing. Importance of Marketing in todays World: Due to Economic downturn marketing has gained importance in past few years in order to gain the attention of the consumers.In 21st century marketing has become one of the key strategies used by organisations world wide. Companies can not use one simple marketing strategy which meets the need of both markets and consumers because they are so versatile to be dealt collectively this is because of continues change in modern society. Cultural changes and advancements in technology divided a market into so many segments.In order for MS to capture large market share it has to set up successful market strategies and make the most of technology. MS Marketing Process: In the past and the present MS proved to be successful to meet its consumers continuously changing needs by effectively implementing marketing processes. Following are the four stages which helped MS to understand fulfil its customers requirements. Situational Analysis: In this stage of marketing process companies like MS keep both internal and external environment in view to carry out the market place analysis and try to spot gaps in the market. In addition to identifying the customer needs, must understand its own capabilities and the environment in which it is operating (NetMBA, 2007). This stage is very vital as the rival companies such as Tesco and Waitrose are always coming up with new ideas and new products etc so that they can stay ahead in the competition. In SWOT analysis this rapidly changing marketing environment comes under the heading of threat. Marketing Strategy: By keeping the core purpose of this report in view, the major change in approach which has been seen in the companies is the shift from mass marketing approach to target marketing. In target marketing approach companies try to identify trends in the segmented market as its the one of the most important factor in STP. Segmentation There are two main types of segmentation i.e. geographic and demographic segmentation. The later one is used by MS to target market for its products and it recognizes its consumers by social class , income and age which is very crucial for success in todays world e.g. clothing line is divided into three segments i.e. premium price, medium priced, and low price. MS customer segmentation is also divided in following 4 groups (Carbon commentary, 2007): Green zealots: people who will actively seek out the most ethically and environmentally responsible products. Climate change is particularly important issue to these people. Those interested and concerned, but often uncertain how to shop to achieve their ethical objectives. Aware of the problem, not certain that their actions can have much effect or that they need to shop differently. Struggling, dont give priority to issues. Targeting: DAMP (distinct, accessible, measurable and profitable) process is used by MS to understand, identify and target the required segments of the market. According to the marketing director , Steven Sharp , although we sell to everybody big, small, young, black, white our absolute target market is a bit older and is comfortable with traditional media (Telegraph, 2006). It means that MS targets, offers (products and services) and sells to a large market but mainly to a mature age group. Positioning: The From this it can be seen that MS targets a very large audience, but the key here is to target the mature age group way that an audience of consumers or buyers perceive a product or service (Baines, P. Fill, C. Page, K., 2008, pg.251). This definition of positioning means that perception has a great deal of importance in terms of both physical attributes and the deliverance of a product. MSs market research information provides a key analytical tool in identifying a consumers preference. MS and the Consumer Society: A consumer society is a culture in which consumption of material goods is encouraged, and the economic health of the society is dependent on the spending of the population (Xaxx, 2010). Basically in consumer society companies make the consumers feel that they need specific product in their life so here marketing plays an important role in terms of attracting consumers to buy a specific product.MS should be very careful in terms of fulfilling consumers expectations regarding price, convenience and experience as a whole because consumers behaviour is seen to be rapidly changing. MS is advertising its products quite cleverly to its target market and persuading consumers as MS itself is a symbol of quality so whatever they sell is of high quality which has a psychological effect on the target market, persuading them to buy particular products/services they offer. Marketing is undoubtfully fashionable (Baudrillard, 1988, p.30) it means marketing is a bridge of communication in terms of both introducing products for sale in the market and letting people know how eco friendly they are, which is practiced by MS. MS is also part of fashion industry of which marketing environment is rapidly changing, by the help of PESTLE analyses we can look into that and the importance for MS to adapt these changes. PESTLE Analysis: Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Legal and Environment analysis are used to explore external environment. Political: Political factors like government policies, taxation, subsidies and grants can effect MS operations e.g. if government increases taxes then, MS have to cut their costs, which can include MS reducing expenditure on marketing. Economic: Economic factors include inflation, taxation, interest and consumer buying power etc basically it includes and affects everyone in the economy. It affects MS marketing strategy and their operation in the market. Consumer buying power means MS shift focus on their pricing strategy carefully, to attract consumers and hence boost sales. Sociological: Consumer buying behaviour and demographic are the factors involved in sociological analyses. Consumer behaviour is the main aspect of marketing, as it focuses to understand consumers preferences, habits and attitudes and then act accordingly in order to attract customers. MS being quality conscious not only try to keep up with their quality standard but also tries to improve it in their stores which they also show in their advertisements. This will have good psychological impact on consumers mind as well as they will always relate MS to quality. Technological: Advancement in technology eased out marketing for companies in 21st century. Internet proved to be one of the biggest revolutions in the field of marketing as it made communication and transfer of information effortless. Internet played a vital role in communication and transfer of information worldwide. MS is marketing its brands and products through its website which is easily accessible by the consumers basically they are one click away from buying required products/services. Legal: MS has to follow certain legalities while trading, dealing with employees and competitors and make sure that all the action they perform are legitimate in the eyes of law. Environmental: The last but not the least factor of PESTLE analyses is environment. One of the reasons behind MS success story is that they have a good organisational culture and this factor also makes a distinction from its rival firms. Marketing Mix Decision at MS: The term marketing mix became popularized after Neil H. Borden published his 1964 article, The Concept of the Marketing Mix Product: A product is defined as anything that is capable of satisfying customer needs (Baines, P. Fill, C. Page, K., 2008, pg. 15). There are three levels of product i.e. core, actual, augment. Core level proves to be the most beneficial and meaningful part of the product. Its the final product being served to the customers for example, MS jackets made from wool being served to customers as clothing to keep the warm. Whereas, the method by which a product is delivered to MS customers comes under the heading of actual product and augmented product is concerned with how the customer receives the product and also considers after-sales services. Women show their keen interest in MS thats why MS makes the most of the profit from women wear however MS still tries to enter new market by conducting market research and bringing out innovative products. Food store is a success story of MS capturing new market. Price Price is what company charges for a product to the customers. In 4ps of marketing mix for a company price is the only factor of source of income. On the other hand product, place and promotion are the cost for the company. While charging for products and services MS keeps the current market value in view. More cost based than most is the type of policy used by MS for pricing (Daily Mail, 2009) which differentiate it from its rival companies. Place Customers can purchase product from the available place. MS has over  600 stores located throughout the UK, ranging from large out-of-town and flagship stores of over 100,000 sq ft, to Simply Food stores of around 7,000 sq ft. Our largest store is located at Marble Arch on Londons Oxford Street and  has around 170,000 sq ft of selling space'(Marks Spencer, 2011). MS is very flexible in terms meeting the demands of its customers and is very carefull and successful till date.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Definition Of Definitions :: essays research papers

<a href="">Sam Vaknin's Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites The sentence â€Å"all cats are black† is evidently untrue even if only one cat in the whole universe were to be white. Thus, the property â€Å"being black† cannot form a part of the definition of a cat. The lesson to be learnt is that definitions must be universal. They must apply to all the members of a defined set (the set of â€Å"all cats† in our example). Let us try to define a chair. In doing so we are trying to capture the essence of being a chair, its â€Å"chairness†. It is chairness that is defined – not this or that specific chair. We want to be able to identify chairness whenever and wherever we come across it. But chairness cannot be captured without somehow tackling and including the uses of a chair – what is it made for, what does it do or help to do. In other words, a definition must include an operative part, a function. In many cases the function of the Definiendum (the term defined) constitutes its meaning. The function of a vinyl record is its meaning. It has no meaning outside its function. The Definiens (the expression supplying the definition) of a vinyl record both encompasses and consists of its function or use. Yet, can a vinyl record be defined in vacuum, without incorporating the record player in the definiens? After all, a vinyl record is an object containing audio information decoded by a record player. Without the â€Å"record player† bit, the definiens becomes ambiguous. It can fit an audio cassette, or a compact disc. So, the context is essential. A good definition includes a context, which serves to alleviate ambiguity. Ostensibly, the more details provided in the definition – the less ambiguous it becomes. But this is not true. Actually, the more details provided the more prone is the definition to be ambiguous. A definition must strive to be both minimal and aesthetic. In this sense it is much like a scientific theory. It talks about the match or the correlation between language and reality. Reality is parsimonious and to reflect it, definitions must be as parsimonious as it is. Let us summarize the characteristics of a good definition and then apply them and try to define a few very mundane terms. First, a definition must reveal the meaning of the term or concept defined.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

whirlpool case :: essays research papers

Whirlpool is an appliance company headquartered in the United States. The company has a global presence and ranks as number two world wide. They are the market leader in the United States. The major goal of the company is to achieve global growth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Whirlpool’s global marketing strategy is based on segmenting customers well and providing suitable products for each specific market. They have different strategies and market conditions for developed markets and developing markets. The company segments its products in developed markets like United States and Europe. In United States there are three segments: high end products, medium priced products and low end products. In Europe there are only two: traditionalists and aspirers. In those markets the competition is severe, the market is fragmented and growth rate of the industry is low; around 1 or 2 percent. So, the company tries to maintain its position by cutting costs down by decreasing the number of warehouses & the product development budget and increasing productivity. In developing markets such as Brazil, China and India, Whirlpool tries to produce products that match the local needs and tastes of the majority (low-end customers). They have two major strategies for that. They use platform method and innovations. In the platform method, the company produces same platforms that are the technical core of the end product for each market. Later on market specific capabilities are added to the product. The other method is innovation of a bran new product for a specific local market. Then the company uses this new product in other markets that have similar needs and tastes by using platform method (making minor adjustments for each market).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Market research is used to gather information about the marketplace. By using this data, the company decides what the local needs and tastes are, how the segmentation should be made and which segment gives priority to what features. According to the results the company launches new products or modifies their existing products for the given market.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Developing products for low income consumers in emerging markets may be a good strategy. As the majority of people in developing countries are low income consumers, by reaching those consumers the company will have huge brand recognition in that country.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Philosophy of Education Essay -- Philosophy of Teaching Statement

Philosophy of Education missing works cited The Education process is one that gradually proceeds throughout life, greatly in early years and really never stops. There will always be something someone has not learned. Knowledge is a powerful tool. One of the most well-known educators in the 20th Century, Christa McAuliffe, before her tragic death said, â€Å"I touch the future, I teach.† As an educator you seek to influence each of your students. A goal, common to many new and old teachers; as well as, those who ‘hope to be† desire the ability to touch someone’s future. In the opportunity one has as an educator it is likely that the future of one immediate student or even a small part of the success of our nation will be affected. If it had not been for the hard work and dedication of previous teachers our nation and even world would not be at the level it is today. If no one had ever learned the fundamental concepts of mathematics and science we would not have vehicles, airplanes, t elevisions, compact discs, computers, and the list continues. In other words, our world would virtually not exist as we know it. One example, from a long list of other notable achievements possible only thought the education process is a man by the name of Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft. If there had not been teachers to help him understand the basics of math, science, English and other usual subjects, he would not have made it to the collegiate level, thus banishing any ideas that Microsoft has contributed to our technological advancement in the computer industry. In fact, we would not have the computer operation system like the one utilized in homes and offices at present. So, in proclaiming that a teacher touches the futu... ...working toward a Masters degree either in education or educational administration. It will likely be educational administration; however, I will decide after I become involved in an actual classroom environment I have also considered a Doctorate in one of these two fields; though, at this time it is too early to commit myself. As an educator I will probably join a local, state, and national teacher organization such as National Education Association. This for support of various aspects of my professional career, including salary, better working environment, and legal issues. Overall, I feel my desire to be an educator, my diverse philosophy, and the plans I have for my professional development will all contribute to my effectiveness as a teacher. I also feel that my philosophy will likely become more enriched as I gain experience in the field.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Mental Health Act Essay

The main purpose of this act is to allow action to be taken, where necessary, to make sure that people with mental health difficulties or learning difficulties get the care and treatment they need for their own health and safety or for the protection of other people. The Mental Health Act 1983 is the law in most of the united kingdom that allows people with a ‘mental disorder’ to be admitted to hospital, detained and treated without their consent if it is truly needed, and if for their own health and safety or for the protection of other people. The court can also admit people who they believe that could be a danger to themselves and others around them. However the hospital can only keep the person detained for a maximum of six months, but they can decide to discharge the patient but still have on going supervised community treatment. A doctor who is ‘approved’ under section 12 of the Act is approved on behalf of the Secretary of State because they have special expertise knowledge in the diagnosis and treatment of ‘mental disorders’. Doctors who are approved clinicians are automatically also approved under section 12. Section 12 approved doctors have a role in deciding whether someone should be detained in hospital under section 2 and section 3 of the Mental Health Act. An approved clinician is a doctor, a psychologist, a mental health nurse, an occupational therapist or a social worker who has been trained and approved for over at least five years to carry out certain duties under Act. Only approved clinicians can take overall responsibility for the case of someone who has been detained in hospital or put on supervised community treatment – be their ‘responsible clinician’ the legislation states that the nearest relative is someone’s husband, wife or unmarried partner and only of they have been living together for over six months. The person is unmarried or does not have a partner if next of kin will then be there children if they are over 18, however if the child is not over eighteen or there is no child present the next of kin will then be one of their parents. However, a nearest relative should be informed or consulted if mental health professionals are proposing to detain someone for treatment under the Mental Health Act unless it is not practicable to do so, or unless consultation would result in ‘unreasonable delay.’ Medication You may be required to take medication prescribed for you by your doctor if you are on a community treatment order (CTO) under the Mental Health Act. There are rules in place, called consent to treatment, that cover whether you should take it. These rules also ensure that you understand why you need to take the treatment, how it will be given to you and possible side-effects. When you are first given medication for your mental illness, your doctor should: explain what the medication is for. tell you about any side-effects. ask for your consent. What happens next? After one month, if you still give consent to continue taking your medication, your doctor will fill in a certificate to confirm this. However, if you are too unwell to give consent, your doctor must have the agreement of a Second Opinion Appointed Doctor (SOAD) for your treatment to continue. If the SOAD agrees that you should continue with all of your medication, or just some of it, they will fill in a certificate confirming this. Can I change my mind? You can change your mind at any time – even after you have agreed to continue taking your medication. You should talk to your doctor before you make any decisions. What if I do not give my consent? If you refuse your medication while on a community treatment order, your doctor cannot force you to take it. However, if your doctor believes that you may become unwell without taking the treatment, they can recall you back to hospital. Additionally, consent to treatment rules may not apply to you if: Your life is at risk. Your health will deteriorate without the treatment. You are a danger to yourself or others.

Children and Prejudice Essay

Abstract Over the last century, researchers have been debating whether prejudices are inborn in children, researchers then found that children are in fact prejudiced, but debate arises about how they become prejudiced. Some studies suggested that children are born with being prejudiced and that it is innate and natural, where as other studies argue that prejudice behavior are learnt socially off parents, family, peers and the social environment in which they grew up in. Theories have been devised to help explain the prejudice processes of children by in-group and out-group behavior; there is the Developmental Intergroup Theory and the Social Identity Developmental theory. A new debate has been surfacing about the decrease of prejudice at the age of seven and no decrease of prejudice. One Australian study shows consistency with children of American and Canada, but some studies show no racial prejudice towards other races in children. Children and Prejudice. Question of whether children are prejudiced has long been debated. Past and recent researches have found that there are in fact prejudice tendencies in children and that it can be present at the age of three to four years, but it is unclear how children become prejudiced. Definition of prejudice according to Allport (1954) is that prejudice is â€Å"thinking ill of others without sufficient warrant† (As cited in Eagly, xxxx, p. 45) and according to Kosslyn and Rosenberg (2004) prejudice is â€Å"an attitude (generally negative) toward members of a group† (p.G-7). In the course of research on the prejudice of children, there has been debate over the â€Å"relative role of cognition versus environmental-learning factors†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Gutman & Hickson, 1996, p. 448). Several theories have tried to explain the prejudice in children, for example, the Developmental Intergroup Theory (Bigler & Liben, 1996) and the Social Identity Development Theory (Nesdale, Durkin, Maass & Griffiths, 2005). Several measures have been used to measure racial attitudes of children towards other races such as the Preschool Racial Attitudes Measure and the Multiresponse Racial Attitude measure (Aboud, 2003). Less then half a century ago, some social theorists believed that prejudice are inborn in people and that it is inherent and instinctive, it was considered natural to not like people who differ physically and like people who are the similar to one self; but research in the last three decades they have discarded those theories. Researchers are now convinced that children are prejudiced by learning it socially, children observe, and are influenced by the â€Å"existence of patterns in the culture in which they live† (Clark, 1955, p.17). This being that, children believed not to be born with tendencies to be prejudiced but learn it socially by how they live. Consistent with Clark, Bigler and Liben (2007), believes that young children are often seen as being unaffected by the negative biases of adults, but many studies show that prejudice exist by the age of four years old. Allport (1958) states that children start to notice physical characteristics that mark a racial group membership. Like researches above, findings of Kowalski’s (2003) research, they have found that children as young as preschoolers start to have negative attitudes to other racial/out ‘ groups, they have a tendency to say positive statements about same race and negative statements about other races (Aboud, 1987; Aboud & Sherry, 1984, as cited in Kowalski, 2003). Until quite recently, there were differences of opinion concerning the age at which children start to develop and express racial prejudices. According to a recent research of white kindergarten children and African-American children, they show a preference for skin color. These children were asked a few questions and they showed a great awareness of skin color, this finding supports the idea that racial awareness is present as young as the age of three (Clark,1970). Some children as young as three years if age begins to express begin to express racial and religious attitudes similar to those held by adults in their society. The racial and religious attitudes of sixth-graders are barely different from the attitudes of high-school students. There is general agreement that children can be prejudiced, but what factors there is, is unclear. It is debated between environmental-learning and cognition development. Research on cognition development tries explaining prejudice at different ages of cognitive development and the Environmental-learning explains that children and discrimination is not rooted in the child but it is learnt through a social context. According to Allport (1988), children are prejudiced because children â€Å"filter and distort environmental input†, this means children are prejudiced due to the lack of cognitive capacity at a certain age and that children have immature thoughts (As cited in Gutman & Hickson, 1996, p. 448). From the Social/ Environmental Learning theory perspective, racial ideas of children are not concrete, more easily changed, than racial ideas of adults. It is probable; too, that racial attitudes and behavior are learnt off adults. The racial and religious attitudes of a young child may become more positive or more negative as he/she matures, according to the social environment of the child. The direction these attitudes will take form of expression, will be determined by the type of experiences that the child has grown up in (Clark, 1970). In line with Clark (1970), some researchers suggest that children self identify with parents and learn off them (Sinclair, Dun & Lowery, 2004). Social Learning Theory argues that children develop beliefs and behaviors by mimicking off an important model in their life, usually family and peers (Bandura, 1997, as cited in Sinclair, Dunn & Lowery, 2004). Likewise, attachment theory suggests that children internalize their parents’ expectations. Sinclair et al (2004) research provided evidence that parents’ racial attitudes does in fact influence both their children’s implicit and explicit racial prejudice, also their results suggest that children that identify with parents adopt the racial attitudes of their parents more on an implicit than explicit level. In fact parents’ implicit racial attitudes may have a bigger influence on children than their explicit racial attitudes because parents are unaware of implicit biases, it is unconscious and therefore, unable to consciously stop themselves from showing prejudice attitudes. This research also suggests that, parents’ racial attitudes may be particularly influential early in childhood, but peers and other form of social environmental attitudes can influence children more as they get older. Some researchers suggest that the influence of environmental-learning factors, in addition to cognitive factors, be given more serious research consideration. This would mean, for example, taking into account the fact that on the basis of their differing exposure to group information, children form different schemata (cognitive structures containing information about groups e. g. , Bem, 1981). According to Bergen ( ) family affects the development of prejudice in children through modeling, which children observes and imitates important role models, Children around seven to nine years of age can show prejudice behavior without a model, and where as younger children do not understand rules, there fore they look at adult models (Bergen,), also when children adopt their parents prejudices they emotionally emerge with their parents likes and dislikes. Bergen ( ) concluded that a prejudiced child goes through several stages, such as, fear of strangers, racial awareness, identification with in-group, identification with parent’s emotion and total rejections of out-group, and seen later on this is similar to the Social Identity Developmental Theory phase’s. Researchers believe that the Social Learning Theory is weakening; researchers are now turning to the basic cognitive processes of a child’s prejudice behavior (Aboud & Sherry, 1984; Bigler &Liben, 1993). Also, Bigler and Liben (2007) suggest that Social Learning theory does not explain prejudice in children, Social Learning Theory is stating that human behavior is not innate but learnt through important/ appropriate models (Vaughan & Hogg, 2008) . A group norm study used the Social identity-developmental theory, which has four phases. The first one is undifferentiated (two to three years of age) followed by ethnic awareness (ethnic awareness begins at three years old off labeling from parents), and then ethnic preference (the child learns that he or she is apart of a social group) and then ethnic prejudice (children around the age of seven has crystallized attitudes towards certain races, but other research suggest that at this age prejudice decreases) (Nesdale et al, 2005; Nesdale, 2004). In this research, the findings were consistent with the Social Identity-Developmental Theory Children’s prejudice phases, they found that seven year old biases of out-groups are different to those of a younger age and is more stable; Nesdale et al (2005) suggests that children at this age should be a the concrete operational stage, which allows them to have more stable thinking and crystallized. Prejudices towards certain type of people are not known why, children only notice certain cues, for example, gender rather then a handicapped person. Research indicates that young children tend to focus on perceptually outstanding characteristics in a person (perceptional cues being race, gender, age & attractiveness, etc). Children observe the characteristics of physical appearance. They notice perceptual similarities and differences among those who live, work & socialize together. They then gather the social groups they observe which must have been caused by meaningful differences between groups (Bigler & Liben, 2007). The new theoretical model by Bigler and Liben (2007), called the Developmental Intergroup Theory (DIT), tries to establish this classification skills in children that affects stereotyping. This theory is combined by two theories, first being the inter-group theory, which is social identification within a group (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) and second one being the Self-categorization Theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher & Wetherall, 1987). Their DIT theory proposes that salience grouping increases in children when adults label groups or group members (Bigler & Liben, 2007 â€Å"Racial prejudice is a predisposition to react favorably to members of a racial group, because of their group affiliation† (Aboud, 1988, p. 48). The majority of child racial prejudice studies have all been researched on children in North America. As stated above one research suggests that children’s prejudice is crystallized at the age of seven and does not decline but other research tends to suggest it does, according to Gutman and Hickson (1996) both can happen because at that age children have more developed mature mind and that because of that it can seem like it decreases because the child has a crystallized conception of a group in their mind. According to Katz (1975) the decrease happen due to social desirability’s and that prejudice is not accepted and according to Aboud (1993) the decline happens because of maturing cognitive development of the child (Augoustinos & Rosewarne, 2001). Ausgosustinos and Rosewarne (2001) results of their research indicated that like the results of North American studies on children, Euro-Australian children in early years of middle school start to show less prejudice towards other groups than the younger children did. North American children prejudices are similar to the children in Australia. Consistent with Doyle and Aboud’s (1995) research on North American children who showed less racial prejudice towards out-groups as they get older can also be seen in Euro-Australian children, they found that older Euro-Australian start to show less racial prejudice towards Aborigines, but as seen later other Australian studies are not consistent with this finding (As cited in Augoustinos & Rosewarne, 2001). Some measures used to measure racial attitudes are the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure (PRAM) and the Multiresponse Racial Attitude (MRA), these look for racial attitudes and preferences in young children and also to find the in-group and out-group attitudes in children. In Aboud’s (1988) finding that the MRA has implications, it goes beyond in finding in-group and out-group results, it doesn’t separate the groups apart and that questions were to open ended and positively worded. Another concern in this field of research is that, overseas research has mainly found that at the age of seven prejudice declines, but some of the findings in Australian studies have found not consistency of declining prejudice at that age. Another problem in Australian studies is that some children do not show bias towards other races (Augoustinos and Reynolds, 2001); this problem could be further looked in future studies. Overall, Aboud’s twenty years (1988) that children are prejudiced and there is general agreement in other researches that children can be prejudiced and that is can start from an early age around three to five years, there is still a debate on whether there are cognitive developmental factors or social learning factors; contemporary researchers are starting to try and explain children and prejudice by using cognitive developmental approaches. There has been debate over weather prejudice declines at seven or are just more implicit and repress because of social undesirability of showing prejudiced behavior. Measures used for researching child prejudice should be looked again and also further studies of child prejudices over different countries as most researches on child prejudice are studied in America and Canada; Perhaps future studies should look at England, Australia and some other multicultural countries in Europe. References Aboud, F. E. (2003). The formation of in-group favoritism and out-group prejudice in young children: Are they distinct attitudes? Developmental Psychology, 39, 48-60. Augoustinos, M. , & Reynolds, K. J. (2001). The development of prejudice in children. D. Garvey (Eds.), Understanding prejudice, racism, and social conflict (pp. 57-73). London: SAGE publications. Augoustinos, M. , & Rosewarne, D. L. (2001). Stereotype knowledge and prejudice in children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 143-156. Bergen, T. J. (2001). The Development of Prejudice in Children. Education, 122, 154-163. Bigler, R. S. , & Liben. L. S. (2007) Developmental Intergroup Theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 132-166. Clark, K. B. (1970). The problem of Prejudice. Prejudice and your Child. (pp. 17-24). Boston: Beacon Press. Eagly, A. H. (in press). Prejudice: Toward a more inclusive understanding. In A. H. Eagly, R. M. Baron, & V. L. Hamilton (Eds. ), The social psychology of group identity and social conflict: Theory, application, and practice. Washington, DC: APA Books. Gutman, D. B. , & Hickson, F. (1996). The relationship between racial attitudes and social-cognitive development in children: An Australian study. Developmental Psychology, 12, 448-456. Kosslyn, S. M. , & Rosenberg, R. S. (2004). Psychology (pp. G-7). Sydney: Pearson. Kowalski, K. (2003). The Emergence of Ethnic and Racial Attitudes in Preschool-Aged Children. The Journal of Social Psychology, 143, 677-690. Nesdale, A. R. (2004) Development of Prejudice in Children. In M. Augoustinos & K. Reynolds (Eds), The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism (pp. 1-12), Sage Nesdale, D. , Durkin, K. , Maass, A. , & Griffiths, J. (2005). Group Norm, Threat, and Children’s Racial Prejudice. Child Development, 76, 652-663. Sinclair, S. , Dunn, E. , & Lowery, B. S. (2005). The relationship between parental racial attitudes and children’s implicit prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 283-289. Vaughan, G. M. , & Hogg, M. A. (2008). Aggression. Introduction to Social Psychology (pp. 452-453). Australia: Pearson.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Animal Farm: a Communist Manifesto

George Orwell's novel Animal Farm is subtitled â€Å"a Fairy Story†, a label that may make the book seem innocent and appropriate for children and classroom settings. However, the title is misleading. Animal Farm is a work of Communist propaganda. It outlines and even encourages the overthrow of the government, and explains how to set up and maintain a communist state. It portrays government as corrupt and the public as stupid and easily manipulated. Orwell himself wavered between being a socialist and an anarchist.Considering communist China's recent increased aggression, and deteriorating relations between them and the United States, the dangers of this novel must be weighed carefully. It is often taught in schools, despite the fact that it promotes un-American and anti-capitalist views. With today's political tension, do we really want our youth exposed to literature that encourages them to mistrust the government and supports a communist revolution? Animal Farm is indeed c ommunist propaganda. It describes how the animals overthrow the farmer and drive all humans from the farm.The animals create a set of laws, designed to eradicate all hints of humanity; humanity, of course, represents the capitalist government. The animals call each other â€Å"comrade†, a clear reference to communism, and after the revolution the animals are described as being â€Å"happy as they had never conceived it possible to be† (Orwell 46). The novel describes much of the procedure of running a communist state. It includes the organization of committees, and the indoctrination of the public in the form of the sheep.Snowball, one of the two pigs who leads the animals after the revolution, teaches the sheep to repeat the maxim â€Å"Four legs good, two legs bad,† which, he feels, sums up the laws of their new system – completely against humans. Methods of propaganda are also explored. Carrier pigeons are sent to neighboring farms to deliver heroic ta les of the revolution and convert other farms to ‘Animalism' – the domino effect in action. Internal propaganda is the responsibility of a pig named Squealer, whose primary function is to convince the animals that the actions taken by the pigs are for their own good.This is a clear description of how to keep a communist regime in power: as long as the pubic is convinced that all actions are for their own good, they will go along with anything. The public is constantly told that they are doing better than ever before; Squealer always tells the animals that they are producing more food more efficiently than when they were under human rule, no matter what the reality of the situation. The novel portrays government in general in an extremely negative manner, and one that is certainly intended to inspire mistrust and encourage rebellion.The government officials are represented by pigs, and are portrayed as sneaky and greedy, with only their own best interests at heart. They take the best of the food, and live in the farmhouse in luxury. Impressionable minds could take this to mean that all governments are greedy and corrupt, and again encourages rebellion. The public, too, is portrayed in an extremely negative light. The vast majority of the animals, who represent the general public, are not even intelligent enough to learn the alphabet.Most of the public is represented by the sheep, who â€Å"could get no further than the letter A† (Orwell 50). Violence is portrayed as both noble and desirable. In the beginning of the novel, the animals turn on their human keepers and attack them, driving them off the farm. This is portrayed as a noble action, and one to be proud of. It is also promotes violence against the government, and explains that the only way to put a communist regime in place is to eliminate the current government by force.When the humans are driven off the farm a second time in the novel, this time with even more violence than the firs t, the animals are jubilant. They are described as having â€Å"reassembled in the wildest excitement, each recounting his own exploits in the battle at the top of his voice† (Orwell 59). This is not a mere glorification of violence; it is a call for violence against the government, an act that is clearly unlawful. â€Å"Advocacy aimed at promoting the forceful overthrow of the government†¦ an be punished without violating the first amendment† (Choper 139). Religion, too, is portrayed as undesirable in Animal Farm. Religion is represented by a raven named Moses who is described as â€Å"a spy, and a tale-bearer†, and who is hated by the other animals because he â€Å"told tales and did no work† (Orwell 37). Moses is later driven off the farm, much as religion was driven from communist countries. Not only is this factor of the book anti-religious, it also explains to readers that for a communist regime to remain in power, religion must be eliminated.O rwell himself alternated between being an anarchist and a socialist; are the values of a man with no respect for capitalism or democracy views that we want taught to our children in schools (Storgaard 5)? Our schools should be teaching children how to be good Americans, not feeding them communist propaganda in the form of fables. Animal Farm is dangerous and inflammatory. It contains instructions for staging a revolution and putting a communist regime in place, and encourages the overthrow of the government. Young minds should not be exposed to this manner of propaganda in school.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Current Strategy

CURRENT STRATEGY SUMMARY FOR INFRASTRUCTURE OPERATIONS SUPPORT SERVICES (IOSS) JOINT BASE POWELL, CA This document was compiled by the IOSS project office and summarizes how many of the Joint Base Powell Infrastructure, Operations, and Support Services (IOSS) requirements listed in the draft PWS were acquired in the past. Each service area is briefly covered by providing information about any current initiatives/contracts, current performance problems, and stakeholder comments about any changes in projected requirements.This document is intended to help the integrated acquisition project team 1) understand and consider the implications of how the various IOSS services requirements were procured in the past and/or are currently being procured; 2) identify potential risks involved in fulfilling the new requirements; and 3) contemplate the extent to which any existing policies and enterprise sourcing strategies might shape the acquisition strategy for this consolidated IOSS requirement. OVERVIEWThe requested IOSS requirement for Joint Base Powell includes 10 service areas. Some of the requirements in these service areas have been fulfilled through an expiring IOSS contract and a number of the services have been fulfilled through a multitude of individual services contracts. The following table summarizes the primary past sources for each of the 10 service areas in the IOSS requirement. Service Area| Previous Source| Contract Type| Housing | Previous IOSS Contract| CPIF/FFP|Transportation / Motor Pool Management | Previous IOSS Contract| CPIF/FFP| Engineering| Multiple Large and Small Businesses| Various| Janitorial/Custodial| AbilityOne & Small Businesses| FFP| Grounds Keeping / Landscaping | Multiple Small Businesses| FFP| Personnel Management and Support| Large Business| FFP| Security Protection | Large Business| Various| Financial Management| Large Business| FFP| Airfield Management| Previous IOSS Contract| CPIF/FFP| Port Support| Previous IOSS Contract| CPIF/F FP| CURRENT/EXPIRING IOSS CONTRACTFour of the service areas envisioned as part of the new IOSS contract are currently being fulfilled by the expiring IOSS contract with SIP, Inc. : transportation / motor pool management, housing, airfield operations, and port operations. The current contract is a 5-year (1 base year and 4 option years) CPIF/FFP contract, and the final option year is due to expire in a little over 12 months. Contract:| Infrastructure, Operations, Service and Support (IOSS)| Contractor:| SIP, Inc. (large business)| NAICS Code:| 561210  |Total Value:| $97. 5M| Type:| CPIF/FFP| Period of Performance:| 5 years (1-year base with 4 option years)| Below is a high-level breakdown of the cost of this contract by FY. Appropriation| FY 20X0| FY 20X1| FY 20X2| FY 20X3| FY 20X4| Total| O&M| 18. 5M| $18. 9M| $19. 3M| $19. 7M| $21. 1M| $97. 5M| Housing Services The existing IOSS contract covers the following types of Housing Management Services: * Housing programming and personne l placement * Housing application management * Housing design and renovation Cost estimation, budgeting, and reporting * Pre-occupancy, pre-departure, and post-departure inspections Transportation / Motor Pool Management Services The existing IOSS contract covers the following Transportation / Motor Pool Management Services: * Operate, maintain, and manage all other services for the installation’s motor vehicle pool * Basic passenger and cargo transportation, loading, and unloading services (as needed) Airfield Management Services The existing IOSS contract covers the following types of Airfield Management Services: Airfield operations staffing * Airfield management and oversight * Airfield inspections (daily, monthly, yearly) and reporting * Airfield use planning, scheduling, and management * Coordinating with all local flying units * Flight planning support Port Support The existing IOSS contract covers the following types of Port Support Services: * Support for biannual tr ansfers of authority * Port maintenance and service planning * Port signage maintenance * Fire support services * Troop support services (laundry, food, etc. * Port operational support services (fueling/defueling, vehicle maintenance and recovery, supply, etc. ) Supplier Information Strategic Infrastructure Professionals (SIP), Inc. is a large business known for their extensive work with the federal government, including working as service/capability integrators. They are one of the few companies large enough to pull together and manage the various teaming partners and subcontractors required to fulfill the various requirements for an IOSS contract. Current PerformanceHousing Among other performance requirements, the current contract specifies that the contractor will: * Place 98% of personnel in appropriate housing within the threshold time period * Process 95% of housing applications within the threshold time period * Complete all housing design and renovation projects no more tha n 8% over the established baseline cost or schedule * Respond to 100% of customer service requests within the threshold time period * Complete 95% of all required inspections on scheduleThough performing well overall under these requirements, SIP has had trouble meeting the application processing (threshold time) and customer service request (threshold response time) requirements during some performance review periods. SIP attributes these issues to subcontractor mismanagement (which it takes responsibility for) and unrealistic estimates of volume fluctuations. SIP has also raised some concerns about its ability to accurately estimate its costs given those same volume fluctuations. Transportation / Motor PoolThe transportation / motor pool management services requirements also specify that the contractor is required to maintain the motor pool at a threshold average availability of 97%, as well as respond to transportation requests for cargo within all routine and emergency service c alls within the specified time limits 100% of the time. SIP has had trouble meeting the transportation availability and response time requirements. SIP attributes these issues to unrealistic expectations of an aging motor pool.Airfield Management The airfield management services requirements specify that the contractor is required to maintain threshold staffing levels, complete 98% of all required inspections on schedule, submit 95% of all required reports on schedule, receive no more than five validated complaints from local flying units per reporting period, and resolve all scheduling conflicts within threshold SLAs. SIP has been exemplary in its performance of the Airfield Management services. Port SupportThe port support requirements specify that the contractor is required to support biannual transfers of authority with no validated complaints per transfer, complete 98% of all required service on schedule, complete 98% of all required inspections on schedule, submit 95% of all r equired reports on schedule, and receive no more than five validated complaints regarding troop support and port operational support services per reporting period. SIP has been exemplary in its performance of the Port Support services.Stakeholder Comments on Projected Requirements The recent BRAC decisions to move personnel and organizations to Joint Base Powell will present some residential facilities maintenance challenges, as personnel will be relocating to the installation from different locations on different timetables. Facilities requirements and lead times can vary as much as 30% from estimates during these planned relocations, which specify only a five-year window. Complying with the â€Å"Better Buying Power† memorandum and its myriad efficiency initiatives are a top priority.The Pentagon program element monitor communicated that a 5-10% reduction in O&M funding over the next 3-4 years is a realistic possibility. Stakeholders for this contract will be looking for si gnificant cost savings and more granular insight into program costs. There is also some concern about the organizational infrastructure and support for a contract of this size and scope. The program manager and the installation Commander are in separate chains of command from the contracting organization, which may create some challenges.In addition, the program office for this new IOSS contract will be different than the program office for the existing IOSS contract. Some institutional knowledge may be lost, and there will certainly be a learning curve when it comes to contract administration. ENGINEERING SERVICES Many base tenants and independently funded programs at Joint Base Powell pursue their own contracts for general engineering services. Most of these engineering services requirements are for recurring engineering advisory & assistance services (A&AS), but support is frequently needed for specific and discrete engineering projects as well.Current Initiatives/Contracts An en terprise contract for engineering A&AS is in place that individual program offices use to fulfill many of their needs for engineering services. Contract:| General Engineering Support Services (GESS)| Contractors:| ManTech (large business)| | TEDCO (large business)| | Littlefield & Chang (small business)| | MECC, Inc. (large business)| | AnCal Consulting (small business)| NAICS Code:| 541330  | Total Value:| $17. 3M| Type:| IDIQ| Period of Performance:| One year base with four option years|Below is a high-level breakdown of the past and projected funding for this contract by FY. Appropriation| FY 20X0| FY 20X1| FY 20X2| FY 20X3| FY 20X4| Total| O&M / R&D| $3. 0M| $3. 3M| $3. 6M| $3. 7M| 3. 7M| $17. 3M| Current Performance Now in the middle of the second option year (four months remaining), there have been few issues with the contractors’ services to date. Each task order released under the contract specifies its own performance requirements, but in general the tasks are eith er FFP or incentivize the contractor to meet cost and schedule targets.Most of the issues that have arisen in this service area stem from variability in volume and conditions—the impact of an influx of personnel from BRAC on requirements scope and scheduling, for example, or the impact of severe weather on development or construction management. Stakeholder Comments on Projected Requirements We’re looking for engineering services, including comprehensive planning, project programming, project management, design and construction management, technical assistance and evaluations, engineering support, and warranty service management.However, there has been a lot of discussion about this service area in particular. Not all functional stakeholders want these services to be combined. Most like developing their own engineering contracts. Some additional comments: * The requirements in this service area are likely to be impacted by local environmental regulations. * Given the a mount of change orders involved in typical engineering services tasks, the contractor will bear an increased management burden for this service area * We need to retain cost viability, but some of the engineering services might be best suited as task orders on an IDIQ vehicle. The evaluation standards and criteria will have to be written very clearly to allow for an accurate value judgment in this services area; the current lack of clarity around some of the future requirements in this area may be an issue, as we will want to give the team room to trade off past performance and skill level against cost. JANITORIAL/CUSTODIAL SERVICES Currently, a few local small businesses and personnel supplied under the AbilityOne program provide janitorial services for the installation.Although janitorial services aren’t very complex, they’re essential to maintain the installation’s exemplary appearance and comply with local, state, and federal laws. Janitorial services my see m like an insignificant commodity, but the personnel at the installation support a variety of critical missions and DoD functions, and the quality of the janitorial services provided affect their working environment and their ability to do their jobs. Current Contract InformationThe AbilityOne program is a Federal initiative to help people who are blind or have other significant disabilities find employment by working within a national network of over 600 Nonprofit Agencies that sell products and services to the U. S. government. The program is administered by the Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. AbilityOne offers numerous products for immediate purchase through a catalog, some items on the Federal Supply Schedule, and thousands of services nationwide.The National Industries for the Blind (NIB) and NISH-Creating Employment Opportunities for People with Significant Disabilities support AbilityOne, and contracting officers wishing to work with Abi lityOne can provide a Statement of Work (SOW) to NIB or NISH for a price proposal. In addition to the AbilityOne program, the Installation awarded a contract nearly five years ago for custodial services. Contract:| Installation Custodial Services (ICS)| Contractors:| Apex Maintenance, Inc. local veteran owned small business)| | Thompson Windows & Floors (local small business)| | A1C Professionals (local small business)| NAICS Code:| 561720  | Total Value:| $2,939,500| Type:| Firm Fixed Price (Multiple Award)| Period of Performance:| Five year base with five option years| Below is a high-level breakdown of the cost of this contract by FY. Appropriation| FY 20X8| FY 20X9| FY 20X0| FY 20X1| FY 20X2| Total| O&M| $565,000| $589,000| $592,000| $592,500| $601,000| $2. 939,500| Service RequirementsUnder this contract—which was competed as a small business set aside—Apex, Thompson, and A1C provide standard custodial services (interior building cleaning, restroom cleaning and deodorizing, window cleaning, carpet cleaning, etc. ) for the installation. They’re nearing the end of a five-year base period of performance (four months remaining), and there are five option years remaining on the contract. Current Performance The combination of suppliers on the ICS contract and support from the AbilityOne program has met the installation’s custodial services requirements satisfactorily during the base period of performance.In both cases, the SOW specifies a performance threshold for each individual service of no more than five validated customer complaints per month. The number of validated customer complaints per month has only exceeded the threshold 3 times in over 50 months on the ICS contract, and has never exceeded the threshold for the AbilityOne program. There are no significant performance issues outstanding with any of the service providers. There are two buildings being renovated and one under construction that will need to be factored int o the next contract.Currently, the Installation furnishes 1800-square feet of office space (three offices) to serve as administrative offices for the ICS contractors, as well as supply closets distributed throughout the installation’s facilities at the facility managers’ discretion. Stakeholder Comments on Projected Requirements We currently project no significant changes to the installations custodial requirements. Since these are commercial services, the risk of competing them seems low, with the biggest concern being avoiding gaps in service during the transition.It’s unknown whether Apex, Thompson, and A1C would be willing to team with a new prime contractor. There is some political pressure to support local small businesses in the current economic climate, and we do have to consider the possibility of protests from offerors who don’t win the award. We also have to consider the recent emphasis on unbundling contracts to promote small business growth a nd participation in local markets. We will need to conduct an analysis to determine the impact that bundling these services together will have on local small businesses.GROUNDS KEEPING/LANDSCAPING SERVICES Local small businesses also provide all the grounds keeping and landscaping services the installation requires. Much like janitorial services, grounds keeping and landscaping seem trivial or simple, but the quality and appearance of the landscaping and grounds can directly affect installation personnel and shape visitors’ lasting impressions of the installation. In other words, we take it for granted until it impacts us. The contractor will be expected to promote and maintain the appearance of all exterior areas of the installation.Current Contract Information Two contracts currently provide this service for the installation. The first, seven months into its first option year, was awarded to Ted’s Tree Service, a Service-disabled Veteran Owned Small Business. Contrac t:| Tree Trimming| Contractor:| Ted’s Tree Service, Inc. | Number of Employees:| 15| NAICS Codes| 561730  | Total Value:| $360,000| Type:| FFP| Period of Performance:| 3 years (1-year base with 2 option years)| Below is a high-level breakdown of the cost of this contract by FY. Appropriation| FY 20X1| FY 20X2| Total|O&M| $125,000| $117,000| $242,000| The second, five months into its first option year, is a multiple-award contract for all other lawn services. Contract:| Grounds Keeping and Landscaping| Contractors:| LocalGreen (small business)| | YLC, Inc. (small disadvantaged business)| NAICS Code:| 561730  | Total Value:| $1,256,000| Type:| Firm Fixed Price (Multiple Award)| Period of Performance:| 2 years (1-year base with 1 option year)| Below is a high-level breakdown of the cost of this contract by FY. Appropriation| FY 20X1| FY 20X2| Total| $623,000| $633,000| $1,256,000| Service Requirements Under these contracts, Ted’s provides year-round tree trimming, pru ning, removal, and maintenance and arborist consulting services, and LocalGreen and YLC provide all grounds keeping and landscaping services (lawn care, planting, walkways, patios, fertilizing, etc. ) except snow removal. Current Performance Both contracts are being executed satisfactorily, and all performance thresholds have been met so far in both cases. Both contracts are in the middle of their first option years.Ted’s performance thresholds for tree trimming specify response times and maximum number of customer complaints. YLC and LocalGreen are also beholden to response time and customer complaint thresholds. None of the three has had a customer complaint in the last twelve months. Stakeholder Comments on Projected Requirements As you know, we have many new residents moving onto the installation due to the BRAC initiative. This will generally impact any contract or service area on base, but especially those that pertain directly to facilities maintenance or maintenance t o the traffic areas.As with janitorial/custodial services, we currently project no significant changes to the installations grounds keeping requirements. With janitorial/custodial services, it’s unknown whether YLC, LocalGreen, and Ted’s would be willing to team with a new prime contractor. We will have to include this service area in our analysis on the impact to local small businesses of bundling these services in the next contract. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT SERVICES A large business, Jankell Corporation, currently provide our personnel management and support.While our stakeholders are satisfied with Jankell’s performance in this service area, personnel management and support services fit within the IOSS construct and could easily be combined with the other services in an omnibus contract. Current Contract Information The Joint Base Powell’s existing contract with Jankell Corporation is due to expire in May 20X1, several months prior to the expec ted award date for the new IOSS omnibus contract. Service Requirements Jankell Corp. provides the following types of Personnel Management and Support Services: Human resources staff management * Personnel records maintenance and systems management * Establishing position descriptions and job qualifications * Customer service * Education and training * Counseling services * Awards programs While overall the stakeholder’s are satisfied, there have been some complaints. For example, complaints include the difficulty involved in getting approval to change, update, or add position descriptions. Stakeholder Comments on Projected RequirementsWhile the other services being discussed are critical for the Joint Base Powell and its operations, Personnel Management and Support services typically impact the morale and of the workforce more so than the other services and, as such, they need to be carefully considered in terms of who is selected to perform these critical duties. Efficiency and cost savings should not replace value when deciding on a contractor to provide these services. SECURITY PROTECTION SERVICES We have been meeting our security/protection services requirements through a large business, AlliedPro, Inc.While AlliedPro has been successfully performing typical commercial security protection services, we would like to streamline this approach, centralizing all Joint Base Powell security protection service requirements under the new IOSS contract. Current Contract Information Three years ago we awarded a contract for security/protection services to AlliedPro, Inc. , a large security and consulting services provider with offices in the area. Contract:| Security/Protection| Contractor:| AlliedPro, Inc. | Number of Employees:| 9250| NAICS Codes:| 561612  | Total Value:| $15. 2M| Type:| FFP|Period of Performance:| 5 years (1-year base with 4 option years)| Below is a high-level breakdown of the cost of this contract by FY. Appropriation| FY 20X9| FY 20X0| FY 20X1| FY 20X2| FY 20X3| Total| O&M| $2. 9M| $3. 0M| $3. 0M| $3. 1M| $3. 2M| $15. 2M| AlliedPro provides 45 full-time security personnel for the base; the Government provides an additional 20. There are two months remaining in the second option year. Service Requirements AlliedPro security personnel (45 full-time employees) provide the following types of security protection services under this contract: * Conduct routine patrols and manage dispatch Protect property and facilities * Control access to the base * Maintain/administer cyber security systems * Conduct background checks and process security clearance applications * Issue visitor and base personnel identification cards Government security personnel (20 full-time employees) provide the following types of security protection services: * Threat response * Protection for national security operations * Protection for vital equipment * Protection for sensitive and classified information The estimated cost of the work performed by the uniformed personnel is approximately $1. 0M annually. Current PerformanceAmong other performance requirements, AlliedPro is expected to: * Respond to 100% of incidents within the threshold time specified * Conduct 100% of routine patrols on schedule * Process 95% of background checks and security clearance applications within the threshold time specified * Maintain required training certifications and verify minimum qualifications for 100% of personnel on the contract * Ensure the rate of physical security incidents is below the threshold during at least 95% of the monitoring periods * Ensure the rate of cyber security incidents is below the threshold during at least 98% of the monitoring periodsCurrently, we are not satisfied with AlliedPro’s personnel management. In the last twelve months there have been some issues with personal appearance, physical fitness, timeliness, and some customer complaints. AlliedPro manages a large and diverse workforce and works with man y large clients and government agencies. Sometimes we feel these issues aren’t getting the attention they should be, and that AlliedPro’s internal hiring standards are not as rigorous as they appear on paper.Stakeholder Comments on Projected Requirements Our business case analysis shows that transferring the current military support of some base security services will be cost effective, but we want to ensure that consolidation does not impact service quality in this critical service area. We’re concerned with consolidating all our security/protection services under one prime, given our current situation with AlliedPro.We’re also concerned with the new contractor’s learning curve during the transition period, as they take over protection of vital assets and classified information from military personnel. Another thing to consider: we try to maintain a threshold number of security personnel per capita on base, the population of which increase measura bly due to BRAC over the next few years. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICES Currently financial management services are handled by Largo, Inc. , a large business.While there is no reason to indicate that Largo is not successfully performing and that the costs are unreasonable, our business case highlights that rolling these services into the future IOSS omnibus contract will inevitably yield cost savings and related process efficiencies. Current Contract Information The Joint Base Powell contract with Largo for financial management services is in its third of four possible option years, which fortunately align with the fiscal year (the same as the targeted award date for the future IOSS contract).Estimated Annual Cost/Savings While specific savings for this specific service area have not been forecasted, market research reveals that combining these requirements with the IOSS contract will yield manpower savings, OH reductions, and a more affordable profit rate, all of which have the pote ntial of saving the command significant money and personnel oversight in this tightly constrained budgetary environment. Service Requirements Financial management services currently include: Funds control * Resource allocation * Budget execution * Funds status reports * Cost performance analysis * Funds reconciliation * Labor/payroll support * Review and reconciliation of reimbursable customer accounts Current Performance Largo, Inc. currently offers the following services and performance targets/levels: * Process payroll on time 100% of the pay periods * Process payroll with 98% accuracy during all pay periods * Process all financial transactions with 98% accuracy Conduct 95% of all required audits on schedule * Submit 100% of budgets on time * Ensure compliance with generally accepted accounting principles Stakeholder Comments on Projected Requirements While never popular to displace a contractor that is performing well (unless Largo competes and wins the IOSS contract), the proje cted cost savings and process efficiencies that the pending IOSS contract offers justifies the transition costs and change management that will inevitably be required to implement this new approach.